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Dietmar Dommenget

the results have some more general implications for the role of the ocean’s natural variability and change for continental variability and change. There is in principle no reason why the processes described by Joshi et al. (2007) shall not be present on interannual or longer time scales of natural climate variability, which is also supported by model simulations for the estimation of climate sensitivity ( Cess et al. 1990 ). Cess et al. (1990) note, although in the context of climate

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Liping Zhang, Thomas L. Delworth, William Cooke, Hugues Goosse, Mitchell Bushuk, Yushi Morioka, and Xiaosong Yang

1. Introduction Multidecadal to centennial variability in the Southern Ocean (SO) is difficult to detect and characterize due to limited in situ observations. Paleoclimate tree ring records over adjacent continents do show long time scale variations in the past hundreds of years (e.g., Cook et al. 2000 ; Le Quesne et al. 2009 ). These low-frequency variations are seen in multiple climate models, including the Kiel Climate Model (e.g., Martin et al. 2013 ; Latif et al. 2013 ), Geophysical

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Hailong Liu, Semyon A. Grodsky, and James A. Carton

examinations of the seasonal cycle of BL and CL development to explore year-to-year variability. This study is made possible by the extensive 7.9 million hydrographic profile dataset contained in the World Ocean Database 2005 ( Boyer et al. 2006 ) supplemented by an additional 0.4 million profiles collected as part of the Argo observing program. We focus our attention primarily on the Northern Hemisphere because of its higher concentration of historical observations. 2. Data and methods This study is

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Mark Carson and D. E. Harrison

1. Introduction In our previous work, we explored regional long-term temperature trends in the subsurface ocean. We found that there are large-scale coherent trend patterns over 20-yr periods, and that these interdecadal trends change sign for different analysis periods nearly everywhere ( Harrison and Carson 2007 ). These patterns of strong regional interdecadal variability at subsurface levels are robust to varying grid sizes and anomaly versus mean temperature fields ( Harrison and Carson

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Jordan Thomas, Darryn Waugh, and Anand Gnanadesikan

anthropogenic forcing and natural variability may play an important role in heat and carbon uptake. Many studies have examined how changes in Southern Ocean circulation impact ocean carbon content ( Sarmiento and Toggweiler 1984 ; Sarmiento and Le Quéré 1996 ; Marinov et al. 2008 ). Between the 1980s to early 2000s, multiple studies linked an acceleration of the wind-driven Southern Ocean overturning with the resulting increase in upwelling of carbon-rich waters, resulting in a decrease in the Southern

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Emanuel Giarolla and Ricardo P. Matano

1. Introduction Relatively little is known about the interannual variability of the Southern Ocean (SO) circulation. Even its most widely investigated mode of low-frequency variability—the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave (ACW; first described by White and Peterson 1996 and Jacobs and Mitchell 1996 )—is surrounded by controversy about its generation, coherence, and even its very existence (e.g., Park et al. 2004 , and references therein). These uncertainties are rooted in the fact that, because

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Lynn K. Shay and Jodi K. Brewster

some cases, the reduction in intensity errors is considerably more dramatic as observed during Hurricane Ivan in 2004. SHIPS with seasonal OHC showed as much as a 22% reduction in forecast intensity errors ( Mainelli et al. 2008 ). This result underscores the importance of OHC variability in the warm pool of the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico’s LC and WCR as well as other eddy-rich regimes such as the western Pacific and Indian Oceans ( Lin et al. 2005 ; Ali et al. 2007 ). The eastern

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Yafang Zhong, Zhengyu Liu, and Michael Notaro

1. Introduction Numerous papers have been published on oceanic regulation of U.S. precipitation variability, with most of them devoted to providing evidence for one or a couple of ocean–U.S. connections. To evaluate the relative importance and gross impact of the oceanic forcings from multiple basins, one needs to consider them within a unified framework. A recent tendency to employ numerical models (e.g., Hoerling and Kumar 2003 ; Schubert et al. 2004 , 2009 ; Seager et al. 2007 ; Shin et

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Guillaume Sérazin, Thierry Penduff, Sandy Grégorio, Bernard Barnier, Jean-Marc Molines, and Laurent Terray

1. Introduction The atmospheric and oceanic general circulations are barotropically and baroclinically ( Eady 1949 ; Charney 1947 ) unstable and spontaneously generate geostrophic turbulence. In the ocean, this mesoscale turbulence emerges at the scale of O (10–100) km and O (10–100) days and in turn strongly interacts with the general circulation (e.g., Holland 1978 ). Mesoscale turbulence is also a well-known, strong manifestation of intrinsic ocean variability (i.e., it emerges without

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Christopher L. Wolfe, Paola Cessi, and Bruce D. Cornuelle

1. Introduction The ocean exhibits variability on a range of space and time scales, from centimeters to planetary scales, and from seconds to millennia. Variability on micro- and mesoscales (hundreds of kilometers and less) is essentially turbulent and unpredictable in detail ( Wunsch 2001 ). Variability at lower frequencies and larger spatial scales is often more organized and can take the form of recognizable modes or oscillations. Familiar examples of such modes include El Niño

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