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Jingqian Wang, Steven Pawson, Baijun Tian, Mao-Chang Liang, Run-Lie Shia, Yuk L. Yung, and Xun Jiang

1. Introduction The influence of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the sea surface temperature (SST), surface pressure, winds, and convection is well known (e.g., Trenberth and Shea 1987 ; Trenberth 1997 ). During El Niño events, temperature in the lower stratospheric is reduced in the tropics and increased in the Arctic ( Garcia-Herrera et al. 2006 ; Free and Seidel 2009 ). Using a multiple regression method, Hood et al. (2010) found that ENSO can influence ozone volume mixing ratios

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David Barriopedro, Manuel Antón, and José Agustín García

1. Introduction Variations in the total ozone column (TOC) have received an increased amount of attention since the discovery of the springtime ozone hole over Antarctica ( Farman et al. 1985 ). Ozone depletion was attributed to the activation of stratospheric chlorine and bromine radicals in the presence of sunlight via heterogeneous reactions on the surface of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), which form at low temperatures in the isolated polar vortex (e.g., Solomon 1999 ). In the 1990s

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In-Bo Oh, Yoo-Keun Kim, Mi-Kyung Hwang, Cheol-Hee Kim, Soontae Kim, and Sang-Keun Song

1. Introduction Elevated ozone layers in the lower troposphere have the potential to enhance the ozone levels at the surface by down-mixing processes and likely influence the tropospheric chemistry and the global climate system ( McKendry and Lundgren 2000 ). They are often developed by synoptically driven airflows associated with the regional transport of ozone and its precursors upwind ( Daum et al. 1996 ; Fast and Berkowitz 1996 ; Blumenthal et al. 1997 ; Hidy 2000 ; Fast et al. 2002

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G. Chiodo, L. M. Polvani, D. R. Marsh, A. Stenke, W. Ball, E. Rozanov, S. Muthers, and K. Tsigaridis

1. Introduction An accurate quantification of the effects of anthropogenic emissions on the ozone layer is a key step toward making accurate predictions of the future ozone evolution. Assessing the ozone response to anthropogenic forcings is also a step toward improved understanding of the coupling between atmospheric composition and climate ( Isaksen et al. 2009 ). There is robust modeling evidence suggesting that anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), via their influences on stratospheric

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Hiroaki Naoe, Makoto Deushi, Kohei Yoshida, and Kiyotaka Shibata

1. Introduction Increases in greenhouse gases (GHGs), especially carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), have important implications for the future evolution of ozone because increased GHGs are expected to lead to decreasing temperature in the stratosphere, caused by strong CO 2 longwave emissions into space (e.g., Stolarski et al. 2012 ). This stratospheric cooling indirectly increases ozone because it reduces the ozone loss rate in the upper stratosphere, owing to the strong positive temperature dependence

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Lars E. Kalnajs and Linnea M. Avallone

1. Introduction Ozone is one of the most important gases present in our environment. It is critical to all life as a filter of harmful solar ultraviolet (UV) light in the stratosphere and it is a significant component of anthropogenic pollution and a health hazard in the troposphere. Accurate and reliable measurements of ozone concentrations are vital to understanding the protective layer of stratospheric ozone, diagnosing its depletion, and monitoring its subsequent recovery. Ozone is also the

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Krzysztof Wargan, Gordon Labow, Stacey Frith, Steven Pawson, Nathaniel Livesey, and Gary Partyka

first reanalysis generated using the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) data assimilation system (DAS) by NASA’s Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). MERRA, first released in 2009, covered the years 1979–2015 (production ended on 29 February 2016). It was followed by the recently released MERRA version 2 (MERRA-2) dataset ( Bosilovich et al. 2015 ), which is the focus of this paper. While most reanalyses include assimilated ozone fields, the overall lack of validation and uncertain

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Gabriel Chiodo and Lorenzo M. Polvani

1. Introduction Stratospheric ozone, and its response to anthropogenic forcings, provide an important pathway for the coupling between atmospheric composition and climate ( Isaksen et al. 2009 ). Quantifying the impact of that ozone response on tropospheric and surface climate is a key step toward assessing the importance of an interactive stratospheric ozone chemistry in climate change projections and, more generally, on the role of the ozone layer in the climate system. It has recently been

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Jin-Tai Lin, Kenneth O. Patten, Katharine Hayhoe, Xin-Zhong Liang, and Donald J. Wuebbles

1. Introduction Regional ozone concentrations are likely to be affected by changes in future climate and biogenic emissions in the coming decades ( Denman et al. 2007 ), as illustrated by numerical simulations with both global ( Racherla and Adams 2006 ; Murazaki and Hess 2006 , hereinafter MH06 ) and regional ( Tao et al. 2003 , 2007 ; Hogrefe et al. 2004 ; Kunkel et al. 2008 ) models. Using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system, for example, under the

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Darryn W. Waugh, Chaim I. Garfinkel, and Lorenzo M. Polvani

of the HC occurs during summer ( Davis and Rosenlof 2012 ), so we will confine our discussion to this season. Several previous studies have examined the role of different possible drivers in causing the austral summertime expansion, but they have reached contradictory conclusions. Specifically, Lu et al. (2009) , Polvani et al. (2011) , McLandress et al. (2011) , Son et al. (2010) , and Hu et al. (2013) all conclude that ozone depletion is responsible for at least 50% of the HC shift, and

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