Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 29,999 items for :

  • Pacific Ocean x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Yangxing Zheng, George N. Kiladis, Toshiaki Shinoda, E. Joseph Metzger, Harley E. Hurlburt, Jialin Lin, and Benjamin S. Giese

important to understand upper-ocean processes that maintain SST under the stratocumulus cloud deck for global simulation and climate prediction. However, until recently, the upper ocean in this region has been sparsely observed, which limits our ability to better understand and simulate the behavior of the atmosphere and ocean globally. In fact, most atmosphere–ocean coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) have systematic errors in the southeast Pacific, including too warm SSTs and too little cloud

Full access
David Halpern, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Xiaochun Wang

1 Introduction The Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) and North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) are major tropical ocean currents that transport warm water eastward in the uppermost 300–400 m. The EUC and NECC occur at the equator and 7.5°N, respectively, with latitudinal widths of 3° and 5°, respectively. The EUC and NECC are maintained by zonal wind stress and wind stress curl, respectively. In the Pacific Ocean, the EUC is strongly related to the onset, maintenance, and dissipation of the El

Full access
Gregory C. Johnson, Sabine Mecking, Bernadette M. Sloyan, and Susan E. Wijffels

formed on ocean shelves around Antarctica, which then cascade down into the abyss ( Orsi et al. 1999 ). Combinations of these North Atlantic Deep Waters and Antarctic Bottom Waters ventilate the cold deep abyss, mixing with waters above them ( Mantyla and Reid 1983 ). As a result, while middepth waters in the Pacific and Indian Oceans are some of the “oldest” waters in the world in terms of the time since they have last been exposed to the surface (or ventilated), the bottom waters are significantly

Full access
Senliang Bao, Ren Zhang, Huizan Wang, Hengqian Yan, Yang Yu, and Jian Chen

profiles were then used as training data for the period 2004–2013 to compute the statistics that relate the surface field data to the subsurface field data, to test data to retrieve S , and for independent data validation (for 2014). Table 1 shows the number of profiles being used for training and testing. Table 1. The number of profiles being used for training and validation in the tropical Pacific Ocean and the Kuroshio Extension region. The EN.4.1.1 dataset also provided the monthly objective

Full access
Lei Zhang, Gang Wang, Matthew Newman, and Weiqing Han

.) The IOB, the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) of Indian Ocean SST interannual variability, has a basinwide warming/cooling pattern across the tropical Indian Ocean and usually lags ENSO by a few months. Studies have suggested that it is largely driven by ENSO-induced cloud and surface flux variations (e.g., Klein et al. 1999 ). On decadal time scales, before about 1985 the IOB and the interdecadal Pacific oscillation (IPO), an ENSO-like pattern of decadal variability ( Power et al

Restricted access
Caroline C. Ummenhofer, Franziska U. Schwarzkopf, Gary Meyers, Erik Behrens, Arne Biastoch, and Claus W. Böning

Indian Ocean variability and its evolution is desirable. Here, using high-resolution ocean model hindcasts, we investigate Indo-Pacific upper-ocean properties to quantify the contributions of local and remote forcing factors to characteristic features in interannual variations across the eastern Indian Ocean and how they might benefit seasonal predictions. In contrast to the eastern equatorial Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, with their prevailing easterly trades favoring a Bjerknes feedback with a

Full access
Dongliang Yuan, Jing Wang, Tengfei Xu, Peng Xu, Zhou Hui, Xia Zhao, Yihua Luan, Weipeng Zheng, and Yongqiang Yu

1. Introduction The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) events are the strongest interannual anomalous events in the tropical Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean, respectively. It is widely recognized that the Pacific ENSO events have global repercussions, including climate variations in the Indian Ocean ( Lau and Nath 2000 , 2003 ; Alexander et al. 2002 ; Lau et al. 2005 ), and that the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies can influence ENSO

Full access
Antti T. Pessi and Steven Businger

1. Introduction Accurate knowledge of the distribution and evolution of moisture and latent heating fields associated with deep convection is essential for accurate numerical forecasts of cyclogenesis (e.g., Anthes et al. 1983 ; Brennan and Lackmann 2005 ). The paucity of in situ observations over the North Pacific Ocean can lead to significant errors in the initial moisture fields’ input into operational numerical models. These observational errors in turn often lead to large forecast errors

Full access
Gregor Skok, Joe Tribbia, Jože Rakovec, and Barbara Brown

precipitation data in a high spatial–temporal resolution that was not available before. These data are also readily available in a large domain (whole tropics) for a period of a few years. In the present study we perform an analysis of both spatial and space–time precipitation objects over the tropical Pacific Ocean. Such an object-based analysis in the tropical Pacific can contribute to the understanding of large-scale tropical features such as the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971

Full access
Tong Ren, Dongchen Li, Jake Muller, and Ping Yang

deviation of the climatologically annual mean SW CREs of 12 CMIP5 models is around 15 W m −2 over the equatorial western Pacific Ocean ( Wang and Su 2013 ). The major cause of the large spread of GCM CRE simulations is the uncertainty of cloud properties—such as cloud fraction (CF) and cloud water content (CWC)—in GCMs ( Cesana and Waliser 2016 ; Dolinar et al. 2015 ; Jiang et al. 2012 ; Klein et al. 2013 ; Su et al. 2013 ; Tsushima et al. 2013 ; Wang and Su 2013 ). Among the CMIP5 models, the

Restricted access