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Kettyah C. Chhak
,
Emanuele Di Lorenzo
,
Niklas Schneider
, and
Patrick F. Cummins

known as the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) index ( Davis 1976 ; Mantua et al. 1997 ). The PDO, also evident in sea surface heights (SSHs), has been linked to the 1976–77 large-scale climate shift over the Pacific ( Miller et al. 1994a ) during which there were also overlapping changes in the atmosphere, including an intensification of the Aleutian low ( Graham 1994 ; Trenberth and Hurrell 1994 ). Fluctuations in various oceanic biota have also been shown in several studies to correspond to

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Hiroki Tokinaga
,
Youichi Tanimoto
,
Shang-Ping Xie
,
Takeaki Sampe
,
Hiroyuki Tomita
, and
Hiroshi Ichikawa

1. Introduction The western North Pacific east of Japan displays rich structures in sea surface temperature (SST) at the confluence of several major ocean currents. The Kuroshio, a western boundary current of the North Pacific subtropical gyre, advects warm/saline water from the tropics, flowing northeastward along the continental slope of the East China Sea (ECS) and south coast of Japan. It separates from the Japanese coast around 35°N, forming an inertial current called the Kuroshio

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Ruifen Zhan
,
Yuqing Wang
, and
Xiaotu Lei

Niño and tropical cyclone frequency in the Australian region and the northwest Pacific. Aust. Meteor. Mag. , 28 , 219 – 225 . Du , Y. , L. Yang , and S-P. Xie , 2011 : Tropical Indian Ocean influence on Northwest Pacific tropical cyclones in summer following strong El Niño. J. Climate , 24 , 315 – 322 . Frank , W. M. , and G. S. Young , 2007 : The interannual variability of tropical cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 135 , 3587 – 3598 . Gill , A. E. , 1980 : Some simple

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Sophie Cravatte
,
William S. Kessler
, and
Frédéric Marin

1. Introduction The equatorial oceans play an important role in our climate system and in the general circulation of the world’s oceans. The upper structure of the equatorial Pacific has been extensively observed and has received much attention for its relation with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation phenomenon. However, observations of middepth currents below 400 m are sparse and synoptic, and there remain large gaps in our knowledge and understanding of the subthermocline currents. Firing (1987

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Ruifen Zhan
,
Yuqing Wang
, and
Jiuwei Zhao

activity has been extensively explored and the involved physical mechanisms have also been investigated [see a review by Zhan et al. (2012) ]. Among them, the impacts of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies (SSTAs) in the Indo-Pacific Ocean on TC activity over the WNP have received the most attention. El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the strongest interannual climate signal in the tropics, has been shown to exert critical impacts on TC activity over the WNP. In general, the warm phase (El Niño

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Yangxing Zheng
,
George N. Kiladis
,
Toshiaki Shinoda
,
E. Joseph Metzger
,
Harley E. Hurlburt
,
Jialin Lin
, and
Benjamin S. Giese

important to understand upper-ocean processes that maintain SST under the stratocumulus cloud deck for global simulation and climate prediction. However, until recently, the upper ocean in this region has been sparsely observed, which limits our ability to better understand and simulate the behavior of the atmosphere and ocean globally. In fact, most atmosphere–ocean coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) have systematic errors in the southeast Pacific, including too warm SSTs and too little cloud

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Gregory C. Johnson
,
Sabine Mecking
,
Bernadette M. Sloyan
, and
Susan E. Wijffels

formed on ocean shelves around Antarctica, which then cascade down into the abyss ( Orsi et al. 1999 ). Combinations of these North Atlantic Deep Waters and Antarctic Bottom Waters ventilate the cold deep abyss, mixing with waters above them ( Mantyla and Reid 1983 ). As a result, while middepth waters in the Pacific and Indian Oceans are some of the “oldest” waters in the world in terms of the time since they have last been exposed to the surface (or ventilated), the bottom waters are significantly

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David Halpern
,
Dimitris Menemenlis
, and
Xiaochun Wang

1 Introduction The Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) and North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) are major tropical ocean currents that transport warm water eastward in the uppermost 300–400 m. The EUC and NECC occur at the equator and 7.5°N, respectively, with latitudinal widths of 3° and 5°, respectively. The EUC and NECC are maintained by zonal wind stress and wind stress curl, respectively. In the Pacific Ocean, the EUC is strongly related to the onset, maintenance, and dissipation of the El

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Senliang Bao
,
Ren Zhang
,
Huizan Wang
,
Hengqian Yan
,
Yang Yu
, and
Jian Chen

profiles were then used as training data for the period 2004–2013 to compute the statistics that relate the surface field data to the subsurface field data, to test data to retrieve S , and for independent data validation (for 2014). Table 1 shows the number of profiles being used for training and testing. Table 1. The number of profiles being used for training and validation in the tropical Pacific Ocean and the Kuroshio Extension region. The EN.4.1.1 dataset also provided the monthly objective

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Caroline C. Ummenhofer
,
Franziska U. Schwarzkopf
,
Gary Meyers
,
Erik Behrens
,
Arne Biastoch
, and
Claus W. Böning

Indian Ocean variability and its evolution is desirable. Here, using high-resolution ocean model hindcasts, we investigate Indo-Pacific upper-ocean properties to quantify the contributions of local and remote forcing factors to characteristic features in interannual variations across the eastern Indian Ocean and how they might benefit seasonal predictions. In contrast to the eastern equatorial Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, with their prevailing easterly trades favoring a Bjerknes feedback with a

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