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Yu Zhang, Shang-Ping Xie, Yu Kosaka, and Jun-Chao Yang

1. Introduction The Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) is the leading mode of monthly sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the North Pacific (poleward of 20°N) ( Mantua et al. 1997 ; Zhang et al. 1997 ). It exhibits a horseshoe-like SST pattern, with anomalies of one sign in the Kuroshio–Oyashio extension (KOE) region ( Nakamura et al. 1997 ; Nonaka et al. 2006 ) and of the opposite sign along the west coast of North America. The PDO predominantly varies on decadal-to-multidecadal time

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Tao Geng, Yun Yang, and Lixin Wu

1. Introduction As the dominant variability of the North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) on the decadal time scale, the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) has received much attention since its identification in the late 1990s ( Mantua et al. 1997 ; Newman et al. 2016 ). Commonly defined as the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of SST anomalies (SSTA) in the North Pacific, the PDO displays a horseshoe-like pattern, with temperature anomalies of one sign in the central and

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Stephanie A. McAfee

1. Introduction In North America, decadal-scale variability in climate is commonly associated with coupled ocean–atmosphere variability in the North Pacific (e.g., Mantua and Hare 2002 ; Gershunov and Barnett 1998 ). Regional fluctuations in sea surface temperature and sea level pressure patterns are described by a number of indices and often referred to as Pacific decadal variability (PDV). The Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) is one metric of PDV, and it is probably the most commonly used

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Matthew Newman, Michael A. Alexander, Toby R. Ault, Kim M. Cobb, Clara Deser, Emanuele Di Lorenzo, Nathan J. Mantua, Arthur J. Miller, Shoshiro Minobe, Hisashi Nakamura, Niklas Schneider, Daniel J. Vimont, Adam S. Phillips, James D. Scott, and Catherine A. Smith

1. Introduction Since its identification in the late 1990s as the dominant year-round pattern of monthly North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variability, the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) has been connected both to other parts of the climate system and to impacts on natural resources and marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Subsequent research, however, has found that the PDO is not a single physical mode of climate variability but instead largely represents the combination of three

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Takeshi Watanabe and Koji Yamazaki

the periods of their data differ. The recent study by Krishnamurthy and Krishnamurthy (2014) showed the relation between the strength of the South Asian summer monsoon and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) using observed data and coupled numerical model data. They suggested that the warm (cold) phase of the PDO is associated with deficit (excess) rainfall over India in June–September and that the PDO modified the relationship between the Indian monsoon rainfall and El Niño

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Catrin M. Mills and John E. Walsh

1. Introduction a. Discovery and background of the Pacific decadal oscillation Ocean temperature variations are a key part of the climate system. The ocean surface allows communication between the atmosphere and the ocean, which has a sufficiently large heat capacity to introduce longer time scales into the associated anomalies. In the northern Pacific Ocean, the dominant mode of ocean temperature variability is the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) ( Alexander 2010 ). This variability is

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Courtenay Strong and Gudrun Magnusdottir

1. Introduction The Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) is the leading pattern of extratropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variability ( Mantua et al. 1997 ). It affects climate in the pan-Pacific basin ( Dettinger et al. 1998 ; Cayan et al. 1998 ; Mantua and Hare 2002 ) and significantly influences Pacific marine ecosystems (e.g., Mysak 1986 ). The spatial pattern of the PDO is shown in Fig. 1a . During the positive polarity of the PDO, SSTs are anomalously low over the central

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Hui Wang, Arun Kumar, Wanqiu Wang, and Yan Xue

1. Introduction The Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) is the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) of monthly-mean sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the North Pacific ( Mantua et al. 1997 ; Zhang et al. 1997 ). The causes of the PDO are the subject of many previous studies. Proposed mechanisms responsible for the spatial and temporal characteristics of the PDO include stochastic forcing of the ocean by the atmosphere ( Alexander 2010 ), coupling of the midlatitude ocean

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Dingzhu Hu and Zhaoyong Guan

. 2017 ; Hu et al. 2018 ; Li et al. 2018 ) and the potential relationship between the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) and the SAV ( Jadin et al. 2010 ; Hurwitz et al. 2012 ; Woo et al. 2015 ; Kren et al. 2016 ; Wang et al. 2016 ). The PDO, which is defined as the leading mode of SSTAs in the North Pacific poleward of 20°N ( Mantua et al. 1997 ; Zhang et al. 1997 ), has important impacts on the northern climate; these impacts include the Pacific storm track ( Lee et al. 2012 ), geopotential

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Arun Kumar and Caihong Wen

1. Introduction Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) is one of the dominant modes of sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the North Pacific and has been associated with various biological and physical aspects of variability over this region ( Mantua et al. 1997 ; Liu 2012 ; Newman et al. 2016 ). Traditionally PDO has been defined based on the variability associated with SSTs ( Mantua et al. 1997 ; Wen et al. 2014 ). Although having a component of variability on a decadal time scale that

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