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H. A. R. de Bruin, I. F. Trigo, F. C. Bosveld, and J. F. Meirink

created an ambiguous situation. Moreover, because of the fact that in hydrology and hydrometeorology PMFAO is generally accepted as “the best” to estimate ET o , interest in the physical background has faded. In the last decade, PMFAO has been applied, without further discussion about its validity, outside the field of irrigation, for instance, in climate change studies in which long-term weather records gathered under nonreference conditions are analyzed. We conclude that there is a need to pay

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Allison McComiskey and Richard A. Ferrare

forcing, exhibit a geographical dependence as a function of meteorology and proximity to different sources. Characterization of the regional variability in chemical, physical, and radiative properties as well as process understanding related to different aerosol types requires measurements in locales outside of the ARM fixed sites. To explore scientific questions outside those represented at ARM’s long-term, fixed sites, an ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) was developed in 2005 for deployment around the

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Elizabeth Mannshardt, Katarina Sucic, Montserrat Fuentes, and Frederick M. Bingham

behavior are all indicative of salinity’s interaction with the global water cycle. They can also lead to important understandings about salinity’s relationship with surface-level meteorological factors and synoptic weather events. We examine how Aquarius and Argo compare across these characteristics. Temporal trends Certain regions are of specific interest because they exhibit interesting and possibly unique characteristics due to physical properties of the region. We divide the area of study into

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Randy A. Peppler, Kenneth E. Kehoe, Justin W. Monroe, Adam K. Theisen, and Sean T. Moore

available for viewing by instrument mentors and site operators on the web within 2 days of data ingest, regardless of the physical location of the sites or the data viewer someone used. Among the earliest diagnostic tools developed by the SGP site scientists were comparisons between hemispheric broadband solar irradiances and modeled clear-sky estimates, and respective comparisons of shortwave albedo estimates and broadband longwave observations from multiple SGP collection sites. Interpretive guidance

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Graham Feingold and Allison McComiskey

higher τ a (e.g., Quaas et al. 2010 ). Efforts to address this issue (e.g., Koren et al. 2010 ) have used both chemical transport models and reanalysis data to place the observations in the context of meteorology. The reader is referred to Tao et al. (2012) for a broad review of this topic, which also covers work done at ARM sites (e.g., Li et al. 2011 ; see below). b. Process studies The physical processes behind “invigoration” describe a plausible response of an individual convective entity

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Sally A. McFarlane, James H. Mather, and Eli J. Mlawer

understand the physical processes controlling this balance, and to improve the representation of these processes in global climate models (GCMs; DOE 1990 ). Fig . 20-1. The global annual mean Earth’s energy budget for the March 2000 to May 2004 period (W m −2 ; from Trenberth et al. 2009 ). To address these questions, the ARM site measurements were planned to provide a full characterization of the radiatively important properties of the atmospheric column, as well as measurements of the radiative

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Clark Weaver, Jay Herman, Gordon Labow, David Larko, and L.-K. Huang

Climatology Project (ISCCP; 1983–2009). This project collected radiances from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and geostationary weather satellite radiance measurements and analyzed them to infer the global distribution of clouds and their properties. Since the geostationary instruments were designed to gather weather rather than climate information, the spectral response of the many SW sensors that contributed to the record does not cover the entire solar spectrum, and they do not

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Robert J. Trapp and Kimberly A. Hoogewind

event using its 3D meteorological forcing but modified by a climate change difference (or Δ). In terms of temperature, such a modification is expressed symbolically as follows: where T ( x , y , z , t ) represents the 3D, time-dependent forcing, and the climate change difference in temperature is as computed over some past and future time intervals. The full PGW methodology is described in section 2 , and the results of its application are given in section 3 . The discussion in section 4

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Nobuhiro Nagumo and Yasushi Fujiyoshi

1975 ). However, few studies have investigated the physical properties of ice pellets and freezing rain occurring in nature ( Gibson and Stewart 2007 ; Gibson et al. 2009 ; Zhang et al. 2011 ). Even during the Canadian Atlantic Storms Program (CASP) field project, few data were collected related to the microphysical properties (i.e., shapes, sizes, and fall velocities) of ice pellets ( Crawford and Stewart 1995 ). In Japan, both ice pellets and freezing rain events are difficult to observe

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Eric J. Jensen, Rei Ueyama, Leonhard Pfister, Thaopaul V. Bui, R. Paul Lawson, Sarah Woods, Troy Thornberry, Andrew W. Rollins, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, and Melody A. Avery

differences between these mechanisms that will affect cirrus occurrence and physical properties are 1) homogeneous freezing of aqueous aerosols requires large supersaturations with respect to ice [≃165% relative humidity with respect to ice (RHI) at TTL temperatures], whereas heterogeneous nucleation can occur at lower supersaturations; and 2) effective heterogeneous nuclei comprise a small subset of the total aerosol population, whereas an abundant supply of aqueous aerosols is always present in the

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