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Carlowen A. Smith, Kevin G. Speer, and Ross W. Griffiths

Antarctic Circumpolar Current fronts: 1. Mean circumpolar paths . J. Geophys. Res. , 114 , C11018 , doi: 10.1029/2008JC005108 . Sommeria , J. , 1991 : Experiments on vortices and Rossby waves in eastward and westward jets. Nonlinear Topics in Ocean Physics, A. R. Osborne, Ed., North-Holland, 227–269 . Sommeria , J. , S. Meyers , and H. Swinney , 1989 : Laboratory model of a planetary eastward jet . Nature , 337 , 58 – 61 , doi: 10.1038/337058a0 . Spall , M. A. , 2013 : Dense water

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Ryan Abernathey and Paola Cessi

planetary-scale equations. The coupled system of the waves and eddies interacting with a planetary-scale flow allows one to consider the stratification parameter, here identified with H 1 to be slowly varying in y and determined as part of the solution . We identify the planetary-scale flow with the time and zonally averaged flow, such that −〈 ψ n 〉 y = U n , with U n slowly varying in y , so that 〈 q 1,2 〉 y = [ β − F 1,2 ( U 2,1 − U 1,2 )]. Formally, this requires a multiple

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Sean Haney, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Keith Julien, and Adrean Webb

instability leads to a forward energy cascade. These submesoscale flows are typically restricted to the mixed layer of the ocean because strong forcing from wind and strain by mesoscale features creates fast flows over short length scales [where Ro ~ O (1)]. Convection and wind also make the near-surface stratification very weak (Ri ≲ 1). Since submesoscale flows occur at the upper boundary layer, they coexist with wind and wave forcing. Despite having a partially geostrophically balanced state, these

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Peter E. Hamlington, Luke P. Van Roekel, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Keith Julien, and Gregory P. Chini

National Center for Atmospheric Research. REFERENCES Adcroft , A. , and Coauthors , 2014 : The MITgcm user manual. Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 470 pp. [Available online at http://mitgcm.org/public/r2_manual/latest/online_documents/manual.pdf .] Alves , J. , M. Banner , and I. Young , 2003 : Revisiting the Pierson–Moskowitz asymptotic limits for fully developed wind waves . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 33 , 1301

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Navid C. Constantinou

.1016/j.ocemod.2015.07.009 . 10.1016/j.ocemod.2015.07.009 Firing , Y. L. , T. K. Chereskin , and M. R. Mazloff , 2011 : Vertical structure and transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in Drake Passage from direct velocity observations . J. Geophys. Res. , 116 , C08015 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JC006999 . 10.1029/2011JC006999 Gill , A. E. , 1974 : The stability of planetary waves on an infinite beta-plane . Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. , 6 , 29 – 47 , https://doi.org/10

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R. M. Holmes and L. N. Thomas

1. Introduction Small-scale turbulent mixing of heat in the tropical Pacific is an important component of the sea surface temperature (SST) budget and contributes to changes in SST over a range of time scales. Variations in diapycnal turbulent transport play a role in the seasonal cycle of SST ( Moum et al. 2013 ) and the diurnal cycle in SST ( Bernie et al. 2005 ; Danabasoglu et al. 2006 ). Modulations in turbulence at time scales of weeks to months associated with intraseasonal Kelvin waves

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Katherine McCaffrey, Baylor Fox-Kemper, and Gael Forget

that low latitudes show a maximum in isobaric salinity variance near the surface ( Fig. 15 ), possibly because of fast planetary waves propagating through a highly stratified upper ocean, and minima at midlatitudes, which may characterize the quieter interior of subtropical gyres. This behavior is qualitatively, and significantly, different from the case of 1000 m and the two isopycnal cases ( Figs. 12 – 14 ). Comparisons between these surface data ( Figs. 14 , 15 ) and tow-yos or the Prediction

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Catherine A. Vreugdenhil, Andrew McC. Hogg, Ross W. Griffiths, and Graham O. Hughes

waves across the ocean domain, after which the dynamics of the circulation change little and the system continues to adjust to a long-term stratification and overturning rate. Kelvin and Rossby wave propagation was found to influence the equilibrating ocean on a range of time scales from months or years ( Kawase 1987 ; Yang 1999 ) up to several hundreds of years ( Huang et al. 2000 ). Johnson and Marshall (2002) considered the response to a change in deep-water formation at high latitudes using

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