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Lindsay Matthews
,
Jean Andrey
, and
Ian Picketts

Rietveld 2009 ; Wall et al. 2015 ; Wall and Meyer 2013 ; Picketts et al. 2016 ). A variety of factors impede the process of adaptation planning and the investment in planned adaptations in the transportation sector. First, climate change impacts and adaptions studies are not a high priority for transportation agencies in most countries ( Picketts et al. 2013 ; Burch 2010 ). Second, with an aging infrastructure, many jurisdictions are facing infrastructure deficits. As such, road authorities are

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Frauke Hoss
and
Paul Fischbeck

, because they were acutely aware of the uncertainty associated with NWS forecasts. Last, EMs preferred using official weather forecasts rather than their own view on the situation to communicate with the public, because the forecasts represent the official assessment of the situation. b. The Theory of Planned Behavior When using forecasts to prepare for weather-related events, EMs consider a number of things such as their evaluation of the forecast, the social repercussions of using/not using various

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Hege Westskog
,
Grete K. Hovelsrud
, and
Göran Sundqvist

many European nations, including Norway, municipalities have been assigned the responsibility for local climate adaptation, but the resources and relevant background knowledge (e.g., maps and vulnerability assessments) are not available at the municipal scale. These are only developed for the national and county levels. The authorities expect the knowledge and tools to be highly useful for municipal planning, assuming linearity from national scientific assessments to local implementation. Municipal

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Anne Steinemann
,
Sam F. Iacobellis
, and
Daniel R. Cayan

. 2005 ). They are the link between data and decision-making, often a component of drought plans. Indicators can help answer the following stakeholder questions: How do we know it’s a drought? How severe is it? When should we take action? How do we know we’re out of a drought? Indicators and indicator systems can present a number of limitations for decision-making. For instance, indicators are often based on metrics that are subjective, statistically inconsistent across different temporal and spatial

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William D. Bonner

VOL. 4, NO. 3 WEATHER AND FORECASTING SEPTEMBER 1989NMC Overview: Recent Progress and Future Plans WILLIAM D. BONNERNational Meteorological Center, NWS, NOAA, Washington, D.C.(Manuscript received 3 March 1989, in final form 22 March 1989) ABSTRACT This article 'describes the mission and organization of the National Meteorological Center (NMC), summarizesprogress since the introduction

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R. Minciardi
,
R. Sacile
, and
F. Siccardi

provide a more accurate measurement of the observed phenomena over a wide spatial region. Realizing the benefits that can derive from a WRN for purposes of civil protection operations management, the Italian government has recently undertaken to plan and to install a national WRN. As far as the integration of radar technology with other information is concerned, many recent works provide useful guidelines and exhaustive details on the state of the art. For European Union countries, relevant

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Gabrielle Wong-Parodi
,
Baruch Fischhoff
, and
Ben Strauss

at least a college degree; 30.1% worked in public service (government, police, local government), 23.1% in education (high school, college), 23.1% in other professions (speech therapist, building owner), 15.4% in real estate, and 15.4% in service industries; and 41.6% were female. 2) Interview protocol The interview protocol was informed by nine informal interviews with emergency planning and preparedness experts working in coastal communities in New Jersey and New York, eliciting their

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Samantha Basile
,
Ashley Bieniek-Tobasco
,
Bradley Akamine
,
Allyza Lustig
, and
Christopher W. Avery

aims: 1) identify and categorize research gaps in a consistent way for a searchable database and 2) demonstrate the use of the research-gap database to support future research planning and assessment. Due to the qualitative nature of research-gap statements, the methodology presented here focuses on the use of confidence terminology when searching assessment text with calibrated language. The discussion acknowledges a broader conversation surrounding definitions of uncertainty from the literature

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Tim Bardsley
,
Andrew Wood
,
Mike Hobbins
,
Tracie Kirkham
,
Laura Briefer
,
Jeff Niermeyer
, and
Steven Burian

water management has long relied on an assumption of stationarity, future climate change may result in hydrologic regimes not well represented by historically observed records ( Milly et al. 2008 ; Woodhouse et al. 2010 ), rendering this assumption no longer defensible for engineering, planning and management applications ( Craig 2010 ). Improved awareness of decadal or longer-term variations or trends in observed and projected climate changes has thus led water managers to evaluate numerous

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Nikolai Bobylev
,
Sebastien Gadal
,
Valery Konyshev
,
Maria Lagutina
, and
Alexander Sergunin

foundation of the storage tank sank due to thawing permafrost and 20 000 tons of fuel spilled into a nearby river, demonstrated one more time, the negative implications of warming in the Arctic. For these reasons, planning for city climate change adaptation (CCA) and sustainable development (SD) strategies in the Far North is especially important because it helps to cope with the above challenges and avoid costly mistakes in developing the region and urban communities with fragile ecosystems and

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