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Tori L. Jennings

1. Introduction At present the two principal policy approaches to global warming include actions to reduce the causes of climate change (mitigation) and adapting to the impacts of climate change (adaptation) ( Houghton et al. 2001 ; Metz et al. 2007 ). The kinds of policy agendas that mitigation and adaptation respond to are somewhat distinct. Whereas climate change mitigation is about preventing further global climate change, climate change adaptation is about coping with local climate change

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David Switzer and Arnold Vedlitz

1. Introduction Policies to solve environmental issues greatly depend on public support. The views, attitudes, beliefs, and values that citizens hold about issues, their public opinions, are important factors in the political and policy processes that identify problems and direct and limit public and private sector responses to those problems ( Baumgartner and Jones 2015 ). Research in environmental public opinion has recently recognized that a major influence on support for environmental

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Claire Cambardella, Brian D. Fath, Andrea Werdenigg, Christian Gulas, and Harald Katzmair

for the governments and agencies developing the plans. An understanding of national, regional, and local preferences for climate protection will be necessary in implementing a successful plan. Cultural theory (CT) provides a framework for understanding how social dimensions shape cultural bias and social relations of individuals, including values, views of the natural world, policy preferences, and risk perceptions ( Swedlow et al. 2016 ; Thompson et al. 1990 ). These biases will influence how

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Ellen Kohl and John A. Knox

methods and use our empirical data to demonstrate the policy outcomes resulting from stakeholders’ knowledge of drought and the societal context within which these knowledges are produced, circulated, and utilized. In conclusion, we discuss initial effects of HB 1281 and reflect on the importance of understanding how stakeholders’ knowledge of drought and the societal context influence policies. 2. Theoretical framing The management of water is both scientific and political ( Budds 2009 ; Bulkeley

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Rachel Hauser

with developing a national weather modification policy in 1976 (Public Law 94-490), the Department of Commerce (DoC) recognized the need for better leadership and coordination of federal research. The resulting DoC policy report suggested that coordination occur under the Committee on Atmosphere and Oceans of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology, which provided advice to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy’s (OSTP) director ( U.S. Department

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Hege Westskog, Grete K. Hovelsrud, and Göran Sundqvist

particular exposure or hazards of a specific location. Added to the uncertainty about impacts are inherent and complex uncertainties in climate projections that increase as the resolution becomes finer. Nevertheless, regional-scale projections show clear trends of increasing temperatures and changing precipitation patterns, which in turn will require adaptation. Climate change is a fuzzy decision-making context with a more pronounced uncertainty than other policy areas as pointed out by Lempert et al

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Maude Dinan, Emile Elias, Nicholas P. Webb, Greg Zwicke, Timothy S. Dye, Skye Aney, Michael Brady, Joel R. Brown, Robert R. Dobos, Dave DuBois, Brandon L. Edwards, Sierra Heimel, Nicholas Luke, Caitlin M. Rottler, and Caitriana Steele

Southwest and Southern Plains Air Quality and Production Agriculture Science and Applications Workshop What : Nearly 60 professionals from agricultural, environmental, and health sectors met to identify knowledge gaps and progress barriers within the agriculture–air quality–climate change nexus for the Southwest and southern Plains regions. Discussion resulted in a roadmap of needs to navigate for policy, research, and land management. When : 17 February 2021 Where : Online, hosted by the USDA

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Rezaul Mahmood, Roger A. Pielke Sr., and Clive A. McAlpine

Observational and modeling studies clearly demonstrate that land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) (e.g., Fig. 1 ) plays an important biogeophysical and biogeochemical role in the climate system from the landscape to regional and even continental scales ( Foley et al. 2005 ; Pielke et al. 2011 ; Brovkin et al. 2013 ; Luyssaert et al. 2014 ; Mahmood et al. 2014 ). The biogeochemical effect on the carbon budget is well recognized in both the scientific and policy-making communities. The

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Samuel Tang and Suraje Dessai

1. Introduction Scientific expertise, knowledge, and progress are perceived to be key reference points in policy-making ( Braun and Kropp 2010 ; Kropp and Wagner 2010 ), making science a fundamental global commodity. In fact, within the United Kingdom demand for scientific information to support policy and investment decisions has grown rapidly ever since bold commitments were made in the white paper “1999 Modernizing Government,” in which the U.K. government invested significant political

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R. H. Simpson

1. Introduction It has been my observation and experience that policies with regard to public services by government agencies are often generated more by default than by design. Sometimes they evolve from the perceptive leadership and urgings of field officials who provide these services. Other times they are the response of policy level officials to an incident in which earlier policies either failed or were nonexistent. Or they may stem from politically motivated actions of Congress. Most

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