Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 44,359 items for :

  • Precipitation x
  • All content x
Clear All
Roy M. Rasmussen, John Hallett, Rick Purcell, Scott D. Landolt, and Jeff Cole

precipitation resulting from the small cross-sectional area represented by such crystals. Such a misleading condition was found to occur during five of the major deicing accidents ( Rasmussen et al. 2000 ). To overcome this problem, real-time estimates of the liquid-equivalent snowfall rate updated once every minute are needed. For this reason, aviation real-time nowcasting systems, such as the Weather Support to Deicing Decision Making (WSDDM) system ( Rasmussen et al. 2001 ), include real-time snowfall

Full access
Amir AghaKouchak, Nasrin Nasrollahi, Jingjing Li, Bisher Imam, and Soroosh Sorooshian

1. Introduction Spatial patterns in precipitation fields are fundamental to hydrologic modeling and streamflow analysis. Many studies highlight the importance of precipitation space–time variability ( Fiener and Auerswald 2009 ; Haile et al. 2009 ; Corradini and Singh 1985 ), which has been proven to affect the quality of runoff predictions ( Goodrich et al. 1995 ; Schuurmans and Bierkens 2007 ). Historically, most studies focus on temporal patterns in precipitation data (see Grayson and

Full access
Michael G. Bosilovich, Junye Chen, Franklin R. Robertson, and Robert F. Adler

physics provides data not easily observed, but is consistent with the analyzed observed data. So, while the data are guided by the observations, model physics and uncertainties still lead to uncertainty in the resultant data products. Betts et al. (2006) summarize strengths, weaknesses, and the utility of reanalyses, especially regarding hydroclimate studies. Precipitation is one of the critical components of the water and energy cycles, but is also largely related to modeled physical

Full access
Jianzhi Dong, Wade T. Crow, and Rolf Reichle

1. Introduction Precipitation detection skill (i.e., the ability to accurately detect precipitation occurrence) is a key metric for quantifying the accuracy of precipitation products ( Dinku et al. 2010 ; Hamada and Takayabu 2016 ). As demonstrated in gauge-based analyses ( Tong et al. 2014 ; Yang and Luo 2014 ), biases in remote sensing precipitation are often attributable to their tendency to falsely detect and/or miss precipitation events. Such detection errors are unavoidably propagated

Restricted access
Qiang Zhang, Xihui Gu, Jianfeng Li, Peijun Shi, and Vijay P. Singh

1. Introduction Tropical cyclones (TCs) and TC-induced storm surge, heavy precipitation, and flooding caused enormous losses of life and economic damage worldwide ( Lin et al. 2015 ; Yan et al. 2016 ). In the backdrop of warming climate, the intensity of nonextreme TCs and the frequency of the most intense TCs are expected to increase, based on the results of theoretical analyses and mathematical models (e.g., Knutson et al. 2010 ; Bindoff et al. 2013 ; Christensen et al. 2013

Full access
William B. Rossow, Ademe Mekonnen, Cindy Pearl, and Weber Goncalves

1. Introduction Some of the concern about possible negative impacts of a warming climate is focused on possible increases of precipitation extremes. For the case of large precipitation amounts that cause flood damage, larger total accumulation can be produced by events with larger average precipitation intensities (average of the instantaneous intensity in mm h −1 over space and time, excluding the zero values), events with more moderate average intensities but longer durations (and slower

Full access
Nathalie Voisin, Andrew W. Wood, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

. Among these are the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model of Liang et al. (1994) , and the University of Waterloo hydrologic model (WATflood; Snelgrove et al. 2005) . As the spatial scales of interest for the application of hydrologic models have increased, so has the need to explore alternative sources for the primary hydrologic forcing variable (i.e., precipitation). Although gridded station data [e.g., the continental U.S. dataset of Maurer et al. (2002) and the global dataset of Adam

Full access
Timothy M. Merlis, Tapio Schneider, Simona Bordoni, and Ian Eisenman

interpreted as indicating enhanced precipitation at those times compared with the present orbital configuration, in which perihelion occurs near the southern summer solstice. Similarly, southern subtropical speleothems in Brazilian caves are more depleted of heavy oxygen isotopes when perihelion occurs near the southern summer solstice ( Cruz et al. 2005 ; Wang et al. 2006 , 2007 ). Thus, speleothem records suggest that precession leads to hemispherically antisymmetric precipitation changes

Full access
Eirik J. Førland, Ketil Isaksen, Julia Lutz, Inger Hanssen-Bauer, Thomas Vikhamar Schuler, Andreas Dobler, Herdis M. Gjelten, and Dagrun Vikhamar-Schuler

1. Introduction Precipitation in the Arctic affects the ocean and terrestrial freshwater budgets, the surface albedo and energy budget, as well as the mass balance of ice sheets, glaciers, and sea ice ( AMAP 2017 ). During recent decades, tropospheric water vapor ( Serreze et al. 2012 ) and precipitation ( Hartmann et al. 2013 ; Willett et al. 2013 ; Hanssen-Bauer et al. 2019 ) have generally increased in the Arctic. The increased precipitation is linked to the general warming, partly driven

Full access
Jessica M. Loriaux, Geert Lenderink, and A. Pier Siebesma

1. Introduction In view of the disruptive nature of precipitation extremes to society, many studies have been published on the behavior of extreme precipitation and its response to climate change ( O’Gorman 2015 ; Westra et al. 2014 ). Model predictions indicate that extreme precipitation will intensify and become more frequent with warming ( IPCC 2014 ), and studies have already been able to attribute changes in extreme precipitation to observed warming ( Min et al. 2011 ; Pall et al. 2011

Full access