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Pablo Zurita-Gotor

, the mean isentropic density at any given latitude is more representative of the frequency with which air masses at that potential temperature are advected through that latitude than of an actual vertical stratification. The surface layer expands to occupy nearly the full troposphere ( Fig. 8c ). 6. Concluding remarks This paper extends the two-layer results of Zurita-Gotor and Lindzen (2006) and Zurita-Gotor (2007) to a primitive equation model. Making use of a new forcing procedure that

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Pablo Zurita-Gotor and Geoffrey K. Vallis

gradient and thus the vertical shear of the zonal wind, or upward heat transport, increasing the static stability and concomitantly increasing the deformation radius and reducing the supercriticality of the flow. Similarly, and more recently, Schneider (2004) and Schneider and Walker (2006) studied the behavior of the criticality in a multilevel, primitive equation model on the sphere like that described by Held and Suarez (1994) , except that a statically unstable equilibrium profile is used in

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Melanie Ades and Peter Jan van Leeuwen

particular, it focusses on the displacement in state space required by the choice of proposal density. The impact on dynamical balances is assessed using a primitive equation model described in section 3 . In section 4 , the relationship between the equivalent-weights particle filter and dynamical balances is discussed. The effect this has on the representation of the posterior PDF is shown in section 5 , and this is followed by a more detailed examination of the effect on gravity waves in section 6

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Xuyang Ge, Tim Li, Yuqing Wang, and Melinda S. Peng

barotropic model does not include the moist diabatic process, it is important to investigate the TCED in a 3D dynamical framework. In this study, a baroclinic primitive equation model is used to understand the evolution and structure characteristics of the 3D Rossby wave train associated with TCED, with a focus on the connection between the upper- and lower-tropospheric asymmetric circulations. Previous investigators (e.g., Frank 1982 ; Davidson and Hendon 1989 ; Holland 1995 ; Briegel and Frank 1997

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Stamen I. Dolaptchiev and Rupert Klein

are summarized and discussed in section 4 . We compare the results from the asymptotic analysis with numerical simulations with a primitive equations model in section 5 . A concluding discussion can be found in section 6 . 2. Asymptotic approach for the derivation of reduced models for the planetary and synoptic scales a. Asymptotic representation of the governing equations We utilize the multiple scales asymptotic method of Klein (2000 , 2004 , 2008 ). It has been applied in the development

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Frederick G. Shuman and John B. Hovermale

VOL. 7, NO. 4 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY AUGUST 1968An Operational Six-Layer Primitive Equation Model FREDERICK G. SItlJMAN AND JOHN ]~. HOVERMALE1Nalional Meteorological Center, Weather Bureau, I-SSA, Washingtoll, D. C. (Manuscript received 13 March 1968)ABSTRACT In mid-1966 a new baroclinic numerical weather prediction model became operational at the NationalMeteorological Center, an event

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Eyal Heifetz and Brian F. Farrell

. J. Atmos. Sci. , 47 , 457 – 473 . Durran , D. R. , and J. B. Klemp , 1982 : On the effects of moisture on the Brunt–Vaisala frequency. J. Atmos. Sci. , 39 , 2152 – 2158 . Eady , E. T. , 1949 : Long waves and cyclone waves. Tellus , 1 , 33 – 52 . Errico , R. , 1984 : The statistical equilibrium solution of a primitive equation model. Tellus , 36A , 42 – 51 . Farrell , B. F. , 1984 : Modal and non-modal baroclinic waves. J. Atmos. Sci. , 41 , 668 – 673 . Farrell

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JOSEPH SELA and WILLIAM J. BOSTELMAN

UDC 551.509.313A Vertically Integrated Primitive-Equation ModelJOSEPH SELA and WILLIAM J. BOSTELMAN-National Meteorological Center,National Weather Service, NOAA, Suitland, Md.ABSTRACT-The primitive equations are integrated with The model includes topography and is capable of respond-respect to the vertical coordinate, sigma. The resulting ing to diahatic heating. Experiment,s with and withoutequations contain vertical eddy terms arising from non- the continuity equation arc carried out, and

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Harald Lejenäs

Oc'roB-~ 1979 H A R A L D L E J E N A S 1299Initialization of Moisture in Primitive Equation Models HARALD LEJEN//~SDepartment of Meteorology, University of Stockholm, Arrhenius Laboratory, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden(Manuscript received 6 December 1978, in final form 15 June 1979)ABSTRACT An explicitly integrated primitive equation grid-point model is. used as a tool to study the impact ofsome variables on

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Miles Sundermeyer and Geoffrey K. Vallis

2556 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 50, NO. 15Correlation Dimensions of Primitive Equation and Balanced ModelsMILES SUNDERMEYER* AND GEOFFREY K. VALLISUniversity of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California26 May 1992 and 17 November 1992 ABSTRACT Low-order primitive equation and balanced models are compared by evaluating the correlation dimensionof each over a range of Rossby

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