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Hua Wang, Shipeng Su, Haichuan Tang, Lin Jiao, and Yunbo Li

observed continuously; 2) the equipment is complicated to use and inconvenient; 3) some measurement methods are lossy or less economical, such as the use of radiosondes and sounding rockets. Therefore, it is desirable to find a new remote sensing method to monitor atmospheric ducts, which can continuously observe atmospheric ducts without using sounding equipment. Wind profiler radar (WPR) can measure the wind field, spectral width and volume refractivity ( Tatarski 1961 ), atmospheric refractive index

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W. G. Blumberg, T. J. Wagner, D. D. Turner, and J. Correia Jr.

1. Introduction The radiosonde is widely considered to be the gold standard for measuring vertical profiles of thermodynamic and kinematic variables. The in situ nature of radiosonde observations allows scientists to obtain a high-vertical-resolution (roughly every 10 m) picture of the atmosphere. Because of this, radiosondes are used for several different applications. Meteorologists use these profiles to understand the current atmospheric state, initialize models, verify model forecasts, and

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R. K. Newsom, D. D. Turner, R. Lehtinen, C. Münkel, J. Kallio, and R. Roininen

et al. 2009 ; Blumberg et al. 2015 ), resulting in better vertical resolution, but the useful range is limited to a couple of kilometers (e.g., Turner and Löhnert 2014 ). Active remote sensing techniques for humidity profiling include differential absorption and Raman lidar (RL). Raman lidars make use of weak inelastic scattering from atmospheric water vapor molecules to infer WVMR. Raman lidars have proven to be capable of producing accurate WVMR profiles with good vertical and temporal

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Z. Sheng, Y. Jiang, L. Wan, and Z. Q. Fan

al. 2014 ). This article uses the SABER atmospheric temperature profiles within a certain bin centered on the rocketsondes’ launching site on 8, 15, 16, 17, and 19 November 2004. The size of a bin is decided by containing two profiles at least. Then we take an average of the temperatures for comparison ( Guo et al. 2011 ; Ern et al. 2008 ). d. WACCM The WACCM is a coupled chemistry climate model based on the Community Atmosphere Model, version 3, in the lower atmosphere ( Collins et al. 2004

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W. G. Blumberg, D. D. Turner, U. Löhnert, and S. Castleberry

1. Introduction Several reports published by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) have highlighted a goal for the atmospheric community: the development of a national network of ground-based boundary layer thermodynamic profilers ( NRC 2009 , 2010 ). Such a network would eliminate a significant gap in the abilities of the current set of U.S. upper-air observing platforms (primarily satellites and radiosondes) in continuously observing the boundary layer and would assist various atmospheric

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J. R. Wang, J. L. King, T. T. Wilheit, G. Szejwach, L. H. Gesell, R. A. Nieman, D. S. Niver, B. M. Krupp, and J. A. Gagliano

MAY 1983 WANG ET AL. 779Profiling Atmospheric Water Vapor by Microwave RadiometryJ. R. WANG, J. L. KING,1 T. T. WILHEIT AND G. SZEJWACH2 NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771L. H. GESELL, R. A. NIEMAN AND D. S. NIVERComputer Sciences Corporation, Silver Spring, MD 20910 B. M. KRUPPSystems and Applied Sciences Corporation, Riverdale, MD 20840

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Robin L. Tanamachi, Stephen J. Frasier, Joseph Waldinger, Allison LaFleur, David D. Turner, and Francesc Rocadenbosch

: 86.8815°W) approximately 22 km west-southwest of Huntsville, Alabama. This site was selected because of its relative freedom from nearby clutter targets, its “upstream” location from the Huntsville domain, and collocation with other VORTEX-SE meteorological measurement systems, including the Collaborative Lower Atmospheric Mobile Profiling System (CLAMPS; Wagner et al. 2019 ) and NOAA supplemental upper-air measurements ( Lee et al. 2018 , 2019 ). UMass FMCW operated almost continuously from 1

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Véronique Meunier, David D. Turner, and Pavlos Kollias

measure very different atmospheric parameters, complementary information can be provided to better understand an atmospheric situation ( Han and Westwater 1995 ; Crewell and Löhnert 2003 ; Löhnert et al. 2004 ). Active remote sensors such as Raman lidars (RLs) are able to provide high-vertical-resolution measurements of water vapor, albeit typically only directly above the instrument ( Goldsmith et al. 1998 ; Turner et al. 2000 ; Han et al. 1994 ). RLs measure profiles of water vapor in time, with

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William L. Smith Sr., Elisabeth Weisz, Stanislav V. Kireev, Daniel K. Zhou, Zhenglong Li, and Eva E. Borbas

1. Introduction The advent of accurate high-spectral-resolution radiance measurements from satellites has ushered in a new era of global atmospheric sounding applications ( Smith 1991 ; Hilton et al. 2012 ). Important for weather applications, these new satellite ultraspectral radiance observations permit the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles with much higher vertical resolution than was achievable with predecessor multispectral lower-spectral-resolution radiance

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R. Gill, K. Geller, J. Farina, J. Cooney, and A. Cohen

1979 N O T E S 225 NOTES Measurement of Atmospheric Temperature Profiles Using Raman Lidar R. G~L, K. G~LLER, J. F^R~NA Am) J. COONE- Physics and Atmospheric Science Department, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 A. COHEN Department of Atmospheric Science, Hebrew University of Yer~salem, Jerusalem, Israe

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