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Brian Ward
,
Tim Fristedt
,
Adrian H. Callaghan
,
Graig Sutherland
,
Xavier Sanchez
,
Jérôme Vialard
, and
Anneke ten Doeschate

air–sea exchange ( Zappa et al. 2007) , although there have been very few measurements in this region of the ocean. Agrawal et al. (1992) has shown enhanced dissipation at the surface that was attributed to breaking waves. The development of vertical ocean profilers has largely been driven by the microstructure community, who are concerned with small-scale temperature, salinity, shear, and velocities in the ocean, which are vital for the study of ocean mixing and turbulence ( Agrawal and

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James N. Moum
,
Daniel L. Rudnick
,
Emily L. Shroyer
,
Kenneth G. Hughes
,
Benjamin D. Reineman
,
Kyle Grindley
,
Jeffrey T. Sherman
,
Pavan Vutukur
,
Craig Van Appledorn
,
Kerry Latham
,
Aurélie J. Moulin
, and
T. M. Shaun Johnston

directions for the Argo program, including the potential inclusion of turbulence (mixing) measurements (ArgoMix), are discussed by Roemmich et al. (2019) . Our primary objective in developing an upper-ocean autonomous turbulence profiling capability was to make clean, acceptably low-noise profiling measurements of turbulence. As a metric to define acceptable noise levels, the temperature variance dissipation rate χ and the turbulence kinetic energy dissipation rate ϵ were to be no greater than

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Kenneth S. Johnson
,
Luke J. Coletti
,
Hans W. Jannasch
,
Carole M. Sakamoto
,
Dana D. Swift
, and
Stephen C. Riser

have enabled long-term (years) observations of nitrate vertical profiles in the open ocean. These systems have already begun to contribute to our understanding of nutrient cycling in open ocean waters ( Johnson et al. 2010 ). Nitrate sensors on profiling floats complement the capability provided by oxygen sensors ( Körtzinger et al. 2004 , 2005 ; Riser and Johnson 2008 ; Martz et al. 2008 ) as a tracer of biological activity because nitrate is not subject to gas exchange across the air

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Boyin Huang
,
William Angel
,
Tim Boyer
,
Lijing Cheng
,
Gennady Chepurin
,
Eric Freeman
,
Chunying Liu
, and
Huai-Min Zhang

observations adjusted to more accurate or homogeneous buoy observations. However, the SSTs in ERSST.v5 and earlier versions have not fully been evaluated by independent observations, particularly before the 1990s. In this study, near-surface (0–5-m depth) temperatures derived from independent ocean profile measurements from 1950 to 2016 are used to evaluate the commonly available SST analyses including ERSST.v5 and ERSST.v4. These profile measurements are from reversing thermometers (RT; attached to Nansen

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Denny P. Alappattu
and
Qing Wang

1. Introduction For decades, airborne expendable bathythermographs (AXBTs) have been used extensively for sampling ocean temperature profiles for oceanic surveys and research (e.g., Bane and Sessions 1984 ; Dinegar Boyd 1987 ; Watts et al. 1989 ; Price et al. 1994 ; Rodríguez-Santana et al. 1999 ). Recently, airborne expendable conductivity–temperature–depth (AXCTD) probes were developed to obtain both temperature and salinity profiles ( Chu and Fan 2001 ; Shay and Brewster 2010 ). These

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Xiaodong Shang
,
Yongfeng Qi
,
Guiying Chen
,
Changrong Liang
,
Rolf G. Lueck
,
Brett Prairie
, and
Hua Li

included, in most models of meridional circulation ( Mashayek et al. 2015 ), partly because there have been very few microstructure measurements extending into the ocean bottom. The two deep turbulence profilers currently in operation—the High Resolution Profiler (HRP) and the Vertical Microstructure Profiler (VMP)-6000 ( St. Laurent et al. 2012 )—have profiled into the ocean bottom but have done so because of ballast release failures (and other technical faults) rather than by intent, which is

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R. Pinkel
,
M. A. Goldin
,
J. A. Smith
,
O. M. Sun
,
A. A. Aja
,
M. N. Bui
, and
T. Hughen

1. Introduction The Wirewalker (WW) is a vertically profiling instrument package propelled by ocean waves. In its simplest form, it is a means of attaching any internally recording instrument to a wire suspended from the sea surface. The WW’s profiling extends the one-dimensional time series recording of the instrument to a two-dimensional depth–time record. The elements of the WW system include a surface buoy, a wire suspended from the buoy, a weight at the end of the wire, and the profiler

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Mathieu Dever
,
Mara Freilich
,
J. Thomas Farrar
,
Benjamin Hodges
,
Tom Lanagan
,
Andrew J. Baron
, and
Amala Mahadevan

the vertical, and 1 km in the horizontal, has become possible due to the development of instruments for profiling the ocean while the ship is underway. These technologies offer the scope to explore the ocean at a horizontal resolution that reveals a wealth of structure and variability that we are only beginning to understand (e.g., Jaeger et al. 2019, manuscript submitted to J. Phys. Oceanogr. ; Shroyer et al. 2019 ). While gliders and other autonomous instrument platform have revolutionized

Open access
Herminio Foloni-Neto
,
Rolf Lueck
,
Yoshiro Mabuchi
,
Hisato Nakamura
,
Masakazu Arima
, and
Hidekatsu Yamazaki

those involving turbulence measurements, are performed by instruments categorized as vertical or horizontal microstructure profilers. According to Oakey and Elliott (1982) , vertical profiling instruments had demonstrated the spatial and temporal variability of observed turbulence structures. However, vertical profilers provide sparse horizontal sampling due to their deployment logistics, particularly in the upper ocean, where the horizontal inhomogeneity and the effect of phenomena such as

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A. M. Thurnherr
,
I. Goszczko
, and
F. Bahr

1. Introduction Acoustic Doppler velocity profilers (ADCPs) mounted on CTD rosettes—so-called lowered ADCP (LADCP) systems—are routinely used to collect velocity profiles in the ocean. LADCP data have been processed for horizontal velocity for over two decades ( Fischer and Visbeck 1993 ). More recently, a method has been developed to obtain vertical ocean velocity as well ( Thurnherr 2011 ). LADCP-derived velocities can be used directly, for example, for circulation studies (e.g., Thurnherr

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