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Zhigang Yao, Jun Li, Jinlong Li, and Hong Zhang

1. Introduction Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data have been shown to be significant to atmospheric research and to monitoring the earth’s environment ( Chahine et al. 2006 ). Infrared (IR) land surface emissivity (LSE) must be taken into account to improve the accuracy of boundary layer temperature and moisture profiles and land surface temperature (LST) in the retrieval process from AIRS radiance measurements that are based on a radiative transfer model. Simulation analysis indicates

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P. Jonathan Gero, John A. Dykema, and James G. Anderson

1. Introduction Measurements of spectral infrared radiance from space are an effective benchmark of global climate change if they are made with demonstrable on-orbit accuracy. A time series of spectrally resolved thermal infrared radiance emitted from the earth to space contains signatures of the longwave forcing of the climate, the climate’s response, and the longwave feedbacks inherent in that response and therefore establishes a high-accuracy record of climate change and also provides

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Ronald M. Errico, Peter Bauer, and Jean-François Mahfouf

critical for characterizing climate. Since they directly or indirectly affect many human activities, their accurate prediction on several time scales is also strongly desired. Remote sensing now provides critical observations for analyzing the atmosphere. The propagation of infrared or microwave radiation is strongly affected by details of clouds or precipitation, including the shape and size distributions of hydrometeors. Thus retrieving temperature and moisture fields from radiance observations in

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David Antoine, André Morel, Edouard Leymarie, Amel Houyou, Bernard Gentili, Stéphane Victori, Jean-Pierre Buis, Nicolas Buis, Sylvain Meunier, Marius Canini, Didier Crozel, Bertrand Fougnie, and Patrice Henry

1. Introduction The geometrical structure of the radiance distribution inside the upper layer of the ocean is primarily determined by the radiance distribution above the surface (resulting from the sun’s position and the sky contribution) and then modified by reflection and refraction effects at the air–water interface. Progressing downward inside the water body, the radiant field is continuously modified by two interplaying phenomena: absorption by which photons disappear, and scattering by

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David S. Crosby and Kenneth S. Glasser

1712 .JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUMI~17Radiance Estimates from Truncated Observations DAVID S. CROSBY AND KENNETH S. GLASSERNalional l~.nvlronmodal $aldlit~ $~r~, NOAA, a~d Ti~ Amo~can University, Washington, DC (Manuscript received 15 August 1977~ in final form 16 August 1978) ABSTRACT In many experiments where radiation emitted from the surface or lower atmosphere is

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Robert Haskins, Richard Goody, and Luke Chen

1. Introduction The need for a comprehensive global climate observing system in order to test the predictions of climate models is often remarked upon in the scientific literature (e.g., Gates et al. 1996 ). In a series of papers we have examined the importance of satellite observations of calibrated, resolved, thermal radiances in this context. Haskins et al. (1997 , hereafter called HGC) discussed statistical aspects of data from the 1970/71 Infrared Interferometer Sounder (IRIS) mission

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Chee-Kiat Teo and Tieh-Yong Koh

). Radiometric measurements of AIRS have been applied to numerical weather prediction (NWP) in Chahine et al. (2006) . At the same time, the climatologies of the radiances from these sensors are envisaged to be critical in climate monitoring and benchmarking of climate models ( Anderson et al. 2004 ). Cross-track scanning sensors such as AIRS detect, for the most part, radiation from off-nadir viewing angles where “limb effect” on observed radiance is significant. The limb effect refers to the change in the

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Likun Wang, Changyong Cao, and Mitch Goldberg

1. Introduction The upper-tropospheric humidity (UTH) fields, which are defined as the water vapor amount between about 600 and 200 hPa, have a significant effect on outgoing longwave radiation and, consequently, influence the earth’s climate system ( Held and Soden 2000 , and references therein). The calculation of UTH from satellite radiance measurements—especially radiance measurements from geostationary satellites with the capability to observe the time variability of UTH with high

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J. Steinwagner, G. Schwarz, and S. Hilgers

1. Introduction Typical limb sounding spectrometers being flown on earth observation or planetary missions measure spectral radiances when scanning the limb above a selected location. A primary goal of these instruments is to provide vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, and/or trace gas profiles. In general, the retrieval of vertical profiles represents an inverse problem, as one observes spectral radiances emitted and/or absorbed by the atmosphere along horizontal lines of sight of

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Larry M. McMillin

1590 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 106An Improved Techoique for Obtaining Clear Radiances from Cloud-Contaminated Radiances LARRY M.'MCMILLINNational Environmental Satellite Services, Washington, DC 20233(Manuscript received 10 March 1978, in final form 10 July 1978) To obtain temperature profiles from radiances measured from satellites, the radiances arc firstcorrected for cloud

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