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Graeme L. Stephens, Susan van den Heever, and Lyle Pakula

notion of radiative–convective equilibrium (RCE). This viewpoint is relevant to the climate of the earth because the global-mean state of the planet is thought to exist in a state of RCE. In this state the input to the atmospheric energy budget is heat, transferred from the surface, that is associated with convective processes and large-scale winds. These inputs are balanced by energy losses from the atmosphere resulting from atmospheric emission of radiation that exceeds its radiation absorption

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Wenyu Zhou, Isaac M. Held, and Stephen T. Garner

1. Introduction Rotating radiative–convective equilibrium, achieved in a doubly periodic box on an f plane with horizontally homogeneous forcing and boundary condition, is an informative idealized framework for studying the interactions between moist thermodynamics, radiation, and rotating dynamics. It can be studied in nonhydrostatic models in which deep convection is partly resolved and also in lower-resolution hydrostatic models with parameterized convection. In the latter case, one can

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Nicolas Rochetin, Benjamin R. Lintner, Kirsten L. Findell, Adam H. Sobel, and Pierre Gentine

1. Introduction The concept of radiative–convective equilibrium (RCE) was introduced by Manabe and Wetherald (1967) , following the earlier work of Gold (1909) and Goody (1949) , to describe an idealized, statistical state of the atmosphere in which a balance between radiative cooling and convective heating determines the vertical temperature profile. RCE postulates that, on average, convective scale motions compensate for the destabilization of the atmosphere by radiation. RCE represents a

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Wenyu Zhou, Isaac M. Held, and Stephen T. Garner

1. Introduction Radiative–convective equilibrium (RCE) is a useful idealized framework for studying the tropical atmosphere. In the simplest version of RCE, one typically ignores spherical geometry and places the flow in a doubly periodic domain in which the forcing and boundary conditions are all horizontally homogeneous. This allows the study of the interactions between radiation and moist convection in a simple geometry (e.g., Bretherton et al. 2005 ; Romps and Kuang 2010 ; Muller et al

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Shineng Hu and William R. Boos

the evolution of regional climate on geological time scales. Answering this question requires a fundamental understanding of the physics of elevated heating by orography, and attaining such an understanding is the central goal of this study. We build on the work of ME99 , who showed that temperatures at a given pressure level of the upper troposphere are warmer over elevated surfaces than over nonelevated surfaces in the theoretical state of radiative–convective equilibrium (RCE). In an RCE state

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Ken Takahashi

assumed to be transparent to shortwave radiation and the longwave emissivities of greenhouse gases are independent of frequency, makes the problem mathematically tractable and exact solutions might be found in some cases (e.g., Goody and Yung 1989 ; Weaver and Ramanathan 1995 ). Another simplifying approximation is to consider a radiative–convective equilibrium model in which large-scale horizontal dynamics (e.g., associated with differential heating and rotation) are ignored. This type of model has

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Lukas Kluft, Sally Dacie, Stefan A. Buehler, Hauke Schmidt, and Bjorn Stevens

1. Introduction Equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS), the change in surface temperature in response to a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 , is arguably one of the most important quantities when discussing climate change. Since the pioneering work by Manabe and Wetherald (1967) , a hierarchy of models has been developed to simulate Earth’s reaction to an external forcing. But even for the most simple models in this hierarchy, such as radiative–convective equilibrium (RCE) under fixed relative

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Lyle Pakula and Graeme L. Stephens

between the radiative and hydrological processes, the cloud-resolving model is run to radiative–convective equilibrium (RCE). The general concept of RCE on large scales has proven to be a useful paradigm for studying the broader aspects of the climate system ( Stephens 2005 ) and in particular the tropical atmosphere (e.g., Betts and Ridgway 1989 ). RCE studies using CRMs have recently emerged as a useful tool to study tropical convection (e.g., Held et al. 1993 ; Sui et al. 1994 ; Tompkins and

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Tristan H. Abbott, Timothy W. Cronin, and Tom Beucler

studies use global simulations with parameterized convection ( O’Gorman and Schneider 2009b , a ; Chen et al. 2019 ), global simulations with superparameterized convection ( Fildier et al. 2017 ), or limited-area radiative–convective equilibrium (RCE) simulations with convection-permitting models ( Muller et al. 2011 ; Romps 2011 ; Muller 2013 ). A CC scaling for the thermodynamic mode can also be derived theoretically by making three assumptions: that 1) ω / g is constant between the surface and

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Xianglei Huang, Hui-Wen Chuang, Andrew Dessler, Xiuhong Chen, Kenneth Minschwaner, Yi Ming, and V. Ramaswamy

conditions on the tropical deep convective systems and their analysis of moisture balance showed the dependence of such moisture convergence with SST. Moreover, this scaling argument does not explain how the vertical profiles of vertical mass flux (equivalently, the vertical velocity) above the PBL would change in response to the rising of global-mean surface temperature. As far as the tropical mean Walker circulation is concerned, numerous studies have used a radiative–convective equilibrium (RCE

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