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Skylar S. Williams, Timothy J. Wagner, and Ralph A. Petersen

individual molecules moving past the sensor in a specific volume of air, thus providing a direct measurement of water vapor specific humidity that is independent of any errors in the aircraft temperature and wind observations ( Fleming and May 2004 ; Petersen et al. 2016 ). The diode operates at a single wavelength of 1.37 μ m, a strong water vapor absorption channel that is insensitive to ice crystals or aerosols. Comparisons of the first versions of the WVSS to radiosondes begun in 2005 showed

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V. Mattioli, E. R. Westwater, D. Cimini, A. J. Gasiewski, M. Klein, and V. Y. Leuski

-wave observations represent another powerful method to identify spurious soundings. It is intriguing to speculate on possible uses of the 22.235-GHz T b and 183.31-GHz measurements to correct radiosonde soundings in the stratosphere. If a suitable training set of simultaneous RS90, NWS-VIZ, GSR, and MWRP observations were available, perhaps a correction could be derived and applied to both past and present soundings. At the ARM Barrow site, the MWRP has been operating since February 2004, and radiometers near

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Kazuya Yamazaki and Hiroaki Miura

. First, we observationally investigated the thermal, wind, and geometric structures of cirrus bands by analyzing data from high-resolution radiosondes and low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites ( section 2 ). Next, a TC simulation was conducted in an idealized setup using a cloud-resolving model to illustrate the structures and heat budgets of cirrus bands in anvil clouds ( section 3 ). Using the thermal and wind structures obtained from the observations and simulations, linear stability analyses were

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Peter J. Marinescu, Patrick C. Kennedy, Michael M. Bell, Aryeh J. Drager, Leah D. Grant, Sean W. Freeman, and Susan C. van den Heever

, 1973 ). Radiosondes have also been used throughout the past 50 years, albeit infrequently, to estimate the vertical velocities in supercells ( Barnes 1970 ; Davies-Jones 1974 ; Davies-Jones and Henderson 1975 ; Bluestein et al. 1988 , 1989 ; Marshall et al. 1995 ; Markowski et al. 2018 ). From these radiosonde observations, the greatest reported w air values were 49 m s −1 ( Bluestein et al. 1988 ) and 53 m s −1 ( Markowski et al. 2018 ), which occurred in Texas and Oklahoma, respectively

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T. Connor Nelson, James Marquis, Adam Varble, and Katja Friedrich

. 2008 ), Cumulus Photogrammetry In situ and Doppler Observations ( Damiani et al. 2008 ), the first and second Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiments ( Rasmussen et al. 1994 ; Wurman et al. 2012 ), Mesoscale Predictability Experiment ( Weisman et al. 2015 ), and Plains Elevated Convection at Night ( Geerts et al. 2017 ) projects have sought to observe convective environments with targeted radiosonde launches deployed at finer spatiotemporal resolution than is capable by

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M. Roja Raman, M. Venkat Ratnam, M. Rajeevan, V. V. M. Jagannadha Rao, and S. Vijaya Bhaskara Rao

high-resolution GPS radiosonde observations from Gadanki revealed several important aspects of MLLJ. First, the existence of the MLLJ over Gadanki is confirmed using GPS radiosonde observations, and then the spatial and vertical characteristics of MLLJ are examined using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA)-Interim and NCEP–NCAR reanalysis datasets. Special attention is paid to the spatial and temporal variation of the MLLJ peak height and peak speed

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Kaoru Sato and Motoyoshi Yoshiki

twice-daily operational radiosonde observations at Syowa Station) that the gravity wave energy at Syowa Station becomes large when the PNJ axis approaches the station. Yoshiki and Sato (2000) and Yoshiki et al. (2004) also showed evidence of gravity waves propagating energy downward in winter, which is consistent with the modeling results by SKT99 . Possible sources of gravity waves in the polar atmosphere were discussed by Sato (2000) . It is, however, generally difficult to examine upward

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Therese Rieckh, Jeremiah P. Sjoberg, and Richard A. Anthes

the RO data profiles are interpolated to a common 100-m computational height grid. When radiosonde (RS) is the reference observational dataset, all datasets are interpolated to the RS mandatory levels. Triplets including RS observations use the closest RS observation within 3 h and 300 km to each RO profile, accounting for RS drift. The details of the collocation procedure are described in appendix A . 4. Correlation of errors in datasets The 3CH method is simple, straightforward to compute, does

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Stanley G. Benjamin, Brian D. Jamison, William R. Moninger, Susan R. Sahm, Barry E. Schwartz, and Thomas W. Schlatter

using a 2007 version of the RUC, including both assimilation system and forecast model components. The observing systems considered in this study include seven primary wind/temperature observation types over the United States: radiosonde observations (raobs), aircraft ( Moninger et al. 2003 ), aviation routine weather report (METAR; surface), mesonet (automated surface observations from non-METAR networks), wind profilers ( Benjamin et al. 2004c ), velocity azimuth display (VAD) vertical wind

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Yehui Zhang, Birong Zhang, and Na Yang

literature, TI and HI in the Arctic have close associations and both exist multiple inversion layers, which may have enhanced impacts on the weather and climate of the Arctic. However, sparse research has focused on the multilayer inversion structure in the Arctic and the coexistence of TI and HI. Based on the high-resolution radiosonde observations at three Arctic stations and reanalysis data, we attempt to have a further understanding of the characteristics of multiple TI and HI layers in the Arctic

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