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Skylar S. Williams
,
Timothy J. Wagner
, and
Ralph A. Petersen

individual molecules moving past the sensor in a specific volume of air, thus providing a direct measurement of water vapor specific humidity that is independent of any errors in the aircraft temperature and wind observations ( Fleming and May 2004 ; Petersen et al. 2016 ). The diode operates at a single wavelength of 1.37 μ m, a strong water vapor absorption channel that is insensitive to ice crystals or aerosols. Comparisons of the first versions of the WVSS to radiosondes begun in 2005 showed

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V. Mattioli
,
E. R. Westwater
,
D. Cimini
,
A. J. Gasiewski
,
M. Klein
, and
V. Y. Leuski

-wave observations represent another powerful method to identify spurious soundings. It is intriguing to speculate on possible uses of the 22.235-GHz T b and 183.31-GHz measurements to correct radiosonde soundings in the stratosphere. If a suitable training set of simultaneous RS90, NWS-VIZ, GSR, and MWRP observations were available, perhaps a correction could be derived and applied to both past and present soundings. At the ARM Barrow site, the MWRP has been operating since February 2004, and radiometers near

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Kazuya Yamazaki
and
Hiroaki Miura

. First, we observationally investigated the thermal, wind, and geometric structures of cirrus bands by analyzing data from high-resolution radiosondes and low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites ( section 2 ). Next, a TC simulation was conducted in an idealized setup using a cloud-resolving model to illustrate the structures and heat budgets of cirrus bands in anvil clouds ( section 3 ). Using the thermal and wind structures obtained from the observations and simulations, linear stability analyses were

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Peter J. Marinescu
,
Patrick C. Kennedy
,
Michael M. Bell
,
Aryeh J. Drager
,
Leah D. Grant
,
Sean W. Freeman
, and
Susan C. van den Heever

, 1973 ). Radiosondes have also been used throughout the past 50 years, albeit infrequently, to estimate the vertical velocities in supercells ( Barnes 1970 ; Davies-Jones 1974 ; Davies-Jones and Henderson 1975 ; Bluestein et al. 1988 , 1989 ; Marshall et al. 1995 ; Markowski et al. 2018 ). From these radiosonde observations, the greatest reported w air values were 49 m s −1 ( Bluestein et al. 1988 ) and 53 m s −1 ( Markowski et al. 2018 ), which occurred in Texas and Oklahoma, respectively

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Takenari Kinoshita
,
Shin-Ya Ogino
,
Junko Suzuki
,
Ryuichi Shirooka
,
Takuji Sugidachi
,
Kensaku Shimizu
, and
Matthew H. Hitchman

satellite observations of temperature and chemical substances including ozone, lidar observations of temperature, and radar observations of wind velocity. Essential observations of wind velocity, temperature, and pressure from the ground to the middle stratosphere are currently routinely obtained by radiosondes, but they generally reach only to ∼30-km altitude. Recently, Dörnbrack et al. (2018) achieved a height of 38.1 km with a 3-kg balloon on 30 January 2014 during the GW-LCYLCE 2 campaign and a

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T. Connor Nelson
,
James Marquis
,
Adam Varble
, and
Katja Friedrich

. 2008 ), Cumulus Photogrammetry In situ and Doppler Observations ( Damiani et al. 2008 ), the first and second Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiments ( Rasmussen et al. 1994 ; Wurman et al. 2012 ), Mesoscale Predictability Experiment ( Weisman et al. 2015 ), and Plains Elevated Convection at Night ( Geerts et al. 2017 ) projects have sought to observe convective environments with targeted radiosonde launches deployed at finer spatiotemporal resolution than is capable by

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Timothy J. Wagner
,
Ralph A. Petersen
,
Richard D. Mamrosh
,
Jordan Gerth
,
Curtis H. Marshall
, and
James M. O’Sullivan

1. Introduction Observations of the vertical profile of atmospheric temperature, moisture, and winds have many critical applications. These range from measuring the current atmospheric state for assimilation into numerical weather prediction (NWP), assisting operational forecasters as they assess the potential for severe convection, monitoring lower-tropospheric stability for its impacts on air quality, and many other purposes. Radiosondes have long been regarded as the de facto standard

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M. Roja Raman
,
M. Venkat Ratnam
,
M. Rajeevan
,
V. V. M. Jagannadha Rao
, and
S. Vijaya Bhaskara Rao

high-resolution GPS radiosonde observations from Gadanki revealed several important aspects of MLLJ. First, the existence of the MLLJ over Gadanki is confirmed using GPS radiosonde observations, and then the spatial and vertical characteristics of MLLJ are examined using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA)-Interim and NCEP–NCAR reanalysis datasets. Special attention is paid to the spatial and temporal variation of the MLLJ peak height and peak speed

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Kaoru Sato
and
Motoyoshi Yoshiki

twice-daily operational radiosonde observations at Syowa Station) that the gravity wave energy at Syowa Station becomes large when the PNJ axis approaches the station. Yoshiki and Sato (2000) and Yoshiki et al. (2004) also showed evidence of gravity waves propagating energy downward in winter, which is consistent with the modeling results by SKT99 . Possible sources of gravity waves in the polar atmosphere were discussed by Sato (2000) . It is, however, generally difficult to examine upward

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Therese Rieckh
,
Jeremiah P. Sjoberg
, and
Richard A. Anthes

the RO data profiles are interpolated to a common 100-m computational height grid. When radiosonde (RS) is the reference observational dataset, all datasets are interpolated to the RS mandatory levels. Triplets including RS observations use the closest RS observation within 3 h and 300 km to each RO profile, accounting for RS drift. The details of the collocation procedure are described in appendix A . 4. Correlation of errors in datasets The 3CH method is simple, straightforward to compute, does

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