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Qingqing Li, Yuqing Wang, and Yihong Duan

1. Introduction Spiral rainbands are distinct features in tropical cyclones (TCs). Two kinds of rainbands in mature TCs were sketched in Willoughby et al. (1984) and Willoughby (1988) : principal and secondary rainbands. The former is stationary relative to the core of the storm and exhibits an evident azimuthal wavenumber-1 characteristics, and the latter is regularly located radially inward of the principal rainband with a smaller scale and shorter life cycle. Houze (2010) introduced

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Jiabin Liu, Inez Y. Fung, and John C. H. Chiang

climatology but that they can have pauses and jumps in a given year ( Ding and Chan 2005 ). The analysis also shows that rain belts with the heaviest precipitation typically consist of mesoscale disturbances along weather fronts ( Ding and Chan 2005 ). Day et al. (2018) used a simple algorithm to identify narrow elongated precipitation features in 57 years of East Asian daily precipitation at 25 km and found that East China receives about 60% of its annual precipitation from these frontal rainbands

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Matthew D. Eastin, Tiffany L. Gardner, M. Christopher Link, and Kelly C. Smith

relative lack of dry air. When observed, they are often associated with outer rainbands or bands adjacent to inward-spiraling dry air intrusions. Moreover, prominent cold pools can have a significant effect on the distribution of inner-core convective activity and overall storm intensity (e.g., Houze 2010 ). Numerous TC studies ( Barnes et al. 1983 ; Barnes and Stossmeister 1986 ; Powell 1990a , b ; and others) have utilized aircraft data to document outer rainband and cold pool structure. These

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Daniel J. Kirshbaum, Richard Rotunno, and George H. Bryan

1. Introduction Quasi-stationary orographic rainbands, which form in response to moist, conditionally unstable flow over complex terrain, are meteorologically significant because they concentrate orographic precipitation over specific areas and may generate large localized precipitation amounts. Observations of such rainbands have been reported over a number of coastal mountain ranges, including the western Kyushu in Japan ( Yoshizaki et al. 2000 ), the Cévennes region of southern France

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Nasreen Akter and Kazuhisa Tsuboki

1. Introduction Rainbands are distinguishable features of tropical cyclones (TCs) that contribute to the total amount of rainfall and play an important role in the dynamics and intensity of TCs ( Willoughby et al. 1982 ; Barnes et al. 1983 ; Powell 1990b ; May and Holland 1999 ; Wang 2002a , 2009 ). Rainbands are categorized as inner or outer and stationary or moving on the basis of their relative positions and propagation to the cyclone center, respectively. Inner rainbands lie close to

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Daniel J. Kirshbaum, George H. Bryan, Richard Rotunno, and Dale R. Durran

broad consistencies between the cases cited above, their different terrain geometries and upstream flows led to differences in the structures of the bands. For example, the rainbands in Yoshizaki et al. (2000) were triggered by two widely spaced peninsulas upstream of the Kyushu range, while those in Cosma et al. (2002) formed past closely spaced peaks on the upslope of the Cévennes, and those in Kirshbaum and Durran (2005b) formed not just past small-scale peaks but also valleys embedded on

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Cheng-Ku Yu and Chia-Lun Tsai

1. Introduction It has long been recognized that precipitation within tropical cyclones is not distributed uniformly throughout the storm; instead, it tends to be organized into elongated, banded features called “rainbands” or “spiral bands.” In addition to the eye and eyewall, the tropical cyclone rainbands (TCRs) are the most striking and persistent features of tropical cyclones seen from meteorological radar and satellite images ( Wexler 1947 ; Senn and Hiser 1959 ; Willoughby et al. 1984

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Cheng-Ku Yu and Che-Yu Lin

coast of eastern Taiwan is usually related to coastal land–sea breezes and circulations that are thermally and/or dynamically induced by the topography ( Johnson and Bresch 1991 ; Sun and Chern 1993 ). Under weak synoptic forcings, offshore convection in this region frequently takes the form of an elongated, narrow band parallel to the shoreline with multiple embedded rainfall maxima. Such convective bands [herein referred to as Taiwan rainbands (TRs)] are a year-round, well-known mesoscale

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Che-Yu Lin and Cheng-Ku Yu

conditions, the precipitation bands occurring off the eastern coast of Taiwan have been referred to as so-called Taiwan rainbands (TRs), which are among the most well-known and frequent mesoscale phenomena in Taiwan ( Yu and Lin 2017 ). TRs are typically oriented parallel to the coast and are characterized by an elongated, narrow zone of heavy precipitation, thus significantly influencing coastal weather in this geographical location. Fig . 1. Topographic features of Taiwan and data sources used in this

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Qingqing Li and Yuqing Wang

1. Introduction A tropical cyclone (TC) typically consists of a precipitation-free eye surrounded by an eyewall with deep convection and spiral rainbands outside the eyewall. Spiral rainbands can be classified into inner and outer rainbands, according to their characteristics and locations ( Guinn and Schubert 1993 ; Wang 2009 ). Inner rainbands occur in the inner-core region inside a radius of about 3 times the radius of maximum wind (RMW), as defined by Wang (2009) . Inner rainbands are

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