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Jian Li and Rucong Yu

1. Introduction Rainfall is one of the most important factors that determine the climate of a region, and advancing the knowledge of observed rainfall characteristics is always a key concern for meteorologists and climatologists. Amount, frequency, and intensity are three primary and widely used parameters to describe the rainfall features. Taking the late-summer [July and August (JA)] rainfall in contiguous China for example, we can get an overall picture of rainfall characteristics based on

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Mateusda Silva Teixeira and Prakki Satyamurty

1. Introduction Although the monthly distribution of rainfall in southern Brazil is quite uniform ( Rao and Hada 1990 ), day-to-day variability is high. The sources for rainfall in this region are mainly cold fronts and mesoscale convective complexes (MCC; Velasco and Fritsch 1987 ). The extratropical cyclones approaching South America from the west move to east-southeast after crossing the Andes while the associated cold fronts move to north-northeast, producing convective activity in

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J. Vaze, D. A. Post, F. H. S. Chiew, J.-M. Perraud, J. Teng, and N. R. Viney

1. Introduction Conceptual rainfall–runoff models have been widely used for catchment water balance studies across the world. The observed runoff used to calibrate and validate these models is recorded at the catchment outlet and as such is an aggregated response of spatially variable rainfall across the catchment. There are uncertainties associated with the rainfall data, and the measured point rainfall data are usually available only at limited locations within a catchment or close to the

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Ching-Sen Chen, Yi-Leng Chen, Che-Ling Liu, Pay-Liam Lin, and Wan-Chin Chen

1. Introduction Even though monsoons are planetary-scale circulations, monsoon rainfalls are frequently localized in nature because of the terrain and local winds ( Ramage 1971 ; Watanabe and Ogura 1987 ; Ogura and Yoshizaki 1988 ; Akaeda et al. 1995 ; Li et al. 1997 ; Yeh and Chen 1998 ; Chen 2000 , and others). The Central Mountain Range (CMR) runs through Taiwan in a nearly north–south direction at an average height of about 2 km and with peaks near 4 km ( Fig. 1 ). With steep terrain

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Marc Schleiss, Sabine Chamoun, and Alexis Berne

1. Introduction Space–time variability of rainfall is an important source of uncertainty that must be properly taken into account. A distinctive feature of rainfall variability at the mesogamma and mesobeta scales (i.e., from 1 to 200 km) is intermittency ( Kundu and Siddani 2011 ; Schleiss et al. 2011 ). Intermittency limits the available water resources in time and space and directly affects the environment and the ecosystems (e.g., Porporato and Rodriguez-Iturbe 2004 ; Mandapaka et al

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Manuel Lonfat, Robert Rogers, Timothy Marchok, and Frank D. Marks Jr.

cyclone rainfall has been identified as a high priority for the research and operational communities ( Marks et al. 1998 ). While significant improvements have been made in forecasts of tropical cyclone track (e.g., Aberson 2003 , 2001 ) and, to a lesser extent, intensity ( Knaff et al. 2003 ; DeMaria et al. 2005 ), much less attention has been focused on improving forecasts of rainfall [quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF)] from tropical cyclones. Only recently have efforts been made to

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Jonathan J. Gourley, Yang Hong, Zachary L. Flamig, Li Li, and Jiahu Wang

1. Introduction Accurate rainfall measurement is needed for a variety of applications vital to the economy, natural resources, and social infrastructure including agriculture, flash flood detection and prediction, water resources management, drinking water supplies, dam operations, transportation, hydroelectric power generation, water quality modeling, debris flow prediction, etc. However, accurately measuring rainfall has been a challenge to the research community predominantly because of its

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Sytske K. Kimball

1. Introduction As a hurricane makes landfall, it moves from shallow coastal waters to solid land, leading to a rapid decrease in surface latent heat fluxes, the hurricane’s primary energy source. In addition, surface roughness increases substantially. These rapidly changing conditions affect the pattern, extent, and intensity of damaging winds and rainfall. The underlying physical processes are complex, occur over a very short time (less than a day), and depend on many coexisting factors

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Elizabeth Lewis, Hayley Fowler, Lisa Alexander, Robert Dunn, Fergus McClean, Renaud Barbero, Selma Guerreiro, Xiao-Feng Li, and Stephen Blenkinsop

1. Introduction One of the most important questions in climate change research is how the intensity, frequency, and duration of extreme rainfall will change with global warming. This question must be approached in several ways, as extreme rainfall occurs over different spatial and temporal scales and has multiple drivers, and needs to be answered on a global scale. Recent work has focused on analyzing global-scale trends in time series of land-based precipitation extremes that occur on daily

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J. Scott Greene, Michael Klatt, Mark Morrissey, and Susan Postawko

1. Introduction Determining the severity and occurrence of precipitation events is important for a range of environmental applications. Changes in precipitation patterns are important since research shows that there have been significant shifts in temporal patterns in the tropical Pacific. Thus, to examine potential long-term future patterns, as well as to model interannual and longer-term climate change, tropical rainfall measurements are essential. Given that the Pacific Ocean represents one

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