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Weijing Chen
,
Chunlin Huang
,
Zong-Liang Yang
, and
Ying Zhang

et al. 2019 ), such as the assimilation of brightness temperature from different sensors, the assimilation of brightness temperature and data from optical sensors, etc. Soil temperature is an important factor affecting both simulated and observed brightness temperature ( Raju et al. 1995 ; Zheng et al. 2012 ). Thus, in the construction of multisource remote sensing data assimilation framework, it is expected to improve the assimilation performance by considering the estimation of soil

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Martha C. Anderson
,
Christopher Hain
,
Brian Wardlow
,
Agustin Pimstein
,
John R. Mecikalski
, and
William P. Kustas

remote sensing evaporative stress index (ESI), representing temporal anomalies in the ratio of actual evapotranspiration (ET) to potential ET (PET). In contrast with precipitation-based indices, the ESI algorithm requires no information about antecedent precipitation or subsurface soil characteristics. In this modeling approach, time-differential land surface temperature (LST) measurements derived from satellite imagery collected by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) in the

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Carl A. Mears
and
Frank J. Wentz

, 16 , 241 – 262 . 10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<0241:THOMRT>2.0.CO;2 Mears, C. A. , and Wentz F. J. , 2005 : The effect of drifting measurement time on satellite-derived lower tropospheric temperature. Science , 309 , 1548 – 1551 . 10.1126/science.1114772 Mears, C. A. , Schabel M. C. , Wentz F. J. , Santer B. D. , and Govindasamy B. , 2002 : Correcting the MSU middle tropospheric temperature for diurnal drifts. Proc. Int. Geophysics and Remote Sensing Symp., Vol. III, Toronto

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Abidán Cerdeña
,
Albano González
, and
Juan C. Pérez

parameters of clouds. Due to the significance of clouds, an analysis of cloud macroscopic and microphysical properties is necessary to evaluate their effects on the earth’s radiation budget and to study climate evolution. In this sense many studies have been carried out in order to understand their radiative behavior, and some methods have been developed to retrieve their optical and microphysical properties. Satellite remote sensing techniques have turned out to be an important tool in the cloud

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Martha C. Anderson
,
Christopher Hain
,
Jason Otkin
,
Xiwu Zhan
,
Kingtse Mo
,
Mark Svoboda
,
Brian Wardlow
, and
Agustin Pimstein

, diagnostic indicators based on satellite remote sensing can be generated at higher spatial resolution and with broad geographic coverage, but may have temporal sampling constraints, both in frequency and period of record. Data assimilation strategies have been developed to integrate in situ and remote sensing data into LSMs to reduce impacts of input biases and model parameterization errors ( Houborg et al. 2012 ; Hain et al. 2012 ; Sheffield et al. 2012 ). This will likely be the optimal solution for

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Suhua Liu
,
Hongbo Su
,
Jing Tian
,
Renhua Zhang
,
Weizhen Wang
, and
Yueru Wu

, and ecology ( Lakshmi et al. 2001 ; Huld et al. 2006 ). At present, T a is typically monitored at meteorological stations that are deployed in a limited number of places and thus lack a broad-enough representation ( Nieto et al. 2011 ). Hence, ground-based measurements of T a cannot satisfy research on larger scales, such as global climate ( Prihodko and Goward 1997 ). The remote sensing technique is a promising alternative for obtaining spatially distributed information on the underlying

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Anne-Claire Billault-Roux
,
Jacopo Grazioli
,
Julien Delanoë
,
Susana Jorquera
,
Nicolas Pauwels
,
Nicolas Viltard
,
Audrey Martini
,
Vincent Mariage
,
Christophe Le Gac
,
Christophe Caudoux
,
Clémantyne Aubry
,
Fabrice Bertrand
,
Alfons Schwarzenboeck
,
Louis Jaffeux
,
Pierre Coutris
,
Guy Febvre
,
Jean Marc Pichon
,
Fabien Dezitter
,
Josué Gehring
,
Aude Untersee
,
Christophe Calas
,
Jordi Figueras i Ventura
,
Benoit Vie
,
Adrien Peyrat
,
Valentin Curat
,
Simon Rebouissoux
, and
Alexis Berne

the subject of strong renewed interest in the past decade (e.g., Field et al. 2016 ; Korolev and Leisner 2020 ). Transitioning to warmer temperatures, processes occurring slightly above and within the melting layer can have sizable socioeconomical repercussions. Two examples are snow buildup on power lines (e.g., Poots 2000 ), or signal deterioration in telecommunications (e.g., Bellon et al. 1997 ). They are also a known concern for remote sensing estimation of precipitation, which can be

Open access
Wenfeng Lai
,
Jianping Gan
,
Ye Liu
,
Zhiqiang Liu
,
Jiping Xie
, and
Jiang Zhu

and Bertino (2009) also suggested that EnOI can effectively improve the forecasts of the mesoscale variability in the Gulf of Mexico. To date, real-time buoy-mounted, shipboard in situ, and remote sensing SST data are the three main types of data applied in the DA scheme. For instance, Liu et al. (2013) assimilated temperature and salinity profiles into an ocean model of the Baltic Sea by using the EnOI approach and proposed that the static ensemble can well resolve the high singularity in the

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Christopher R. Hain
,
John R. Mecikalski
, and
Martha C. Anderson

; Jackson et al. 2007 ; Crow and Zhan 2007 ). In addition, thermal data are available at much higher spatial resolution than are microwave products—tens of meters as compared with tens of kilometers. Unlike microwave remote sensing, however, thermal imagery cannot be collected through cloud cover. It appears that there is also a potential synergy between thermal and microwave soil moisture mapping techniques that has yet to be exploited. Methods for thermal microwave soil moisture product integration

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Nicolas Bambach
,
Kyle Knipper
,
Andrew J. McElrone
,
Mallika Nocco
,
Alfonso Torres-Rua
,
William Kustas
,
Martha Anderson
,
Sebastian Castro
,
Erica Edwards
,
Moises Duran-Gomez
,
Andrew Gal
,
Peter Tolentino
,
Ian Wright
,
Matthew Roby
,
Feng Gao
,
Joseph Alfieri
,
John Prueger
,
Lawrence Hipps
, and
Sebastian Saa

extremes. In fact, an ongoing water crisis due to recent prolonged and severe droughts ( Wahl et al. 2022 ) has highlighted the need to use water more efficiently. In this context, we introduce the Tree-Crop Remote Sensing of Evapotranspiration Experiment (T-REX) as an interdisciplinary project aimed at developing crop sensing technologies across scales to inform and support 1) agricultural management decisions with an emphasis on irrigation and sustainable cultural practices, 2) local- to regional

Open access