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Frédéric Fabry
,
Joseph Samuel
, and
Véronique Meunier

1. Energy demand, renewable supply, and weather To meet ambitious targets of greenhouse gas emission reductions, we must rapidly shift our energy production to become dominated by renewable sources ( Hoffert et al. 1998 ; IPCC 2022 ). This also implies a shift from a system where energy is primarily generated under our control and on demand to one where energy is not necessarily produced at times of need and, hence, must be stored for later use, requiring either considerable energy

Open access
S. Jerez
,
R. M. Trigo
,
S. M. Vicente-Serrano
,
D. Pozo-Vázquez
,
R. Lorente-Plazas
,
J. Lorenzo-Lacruz
,
F. Santos-Alamillos
, and
J. P. Montávez

1. Introduction To promote a sustainable future, Europe allocates large amounts of public and private investment money to renewable energy power plants as part of both 1) mitigation and adaptation strategies to the current climate change affecting with particular intensity the western sector of the Mediterranean Sea basin ( Giorgi 2006 ) and 2) economic development and energetic independence plans allowing for reductions in expensive imports of nonrenewable resources ( Patel 2011 ). Both

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Kenji Doering
and
Scott Steinschneider

1. Introduction Continued growth in the U.S. renewable energy sector is critical to reduce national greenhouse gas emissions under growing population and energy demands. In 2017, hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy contributed 7.5%, 6.3%, and 1.3% of total U.S. generation, respectively. High growth in wind (8.65% yr −1 ) and solar (42% yr −1 ) over the last 5 years has been driven by declines in unit cost from technological advances, economies of scale in production, and federal and state

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Ye Liu
,
Brian Gaudet
,
Raghavendra Krishnamurthy
,
Sheng-Lun Tai
,
Larry K. Berg
,
Nicola Bodini
,
Alex Rybchuk
, and
Andrew Kumler

1. Introduction In 2022, the U.S. offshore wind energy project development and operational pipeline grew to a potential generating capacity of 40 000 MW, with the significant contribution of capacity in the outer continental shelf off the coast of California ( Musial et al. 2022 ). The deep waters offshore of California will require wind turbines installed on floating platforms anchored to the seabed. To provide accurate cost estimates for floating wind energy, the National Renewable

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Sue Ellen Haupt
,
Jeffrey Copeland
,
William Y. Y. Cheng
,
Yongxin Zhang
,
Caspar Ammann
, and
Patrick Sullivan

1. Introduction Rapid increases in energy demand due to economic development and population growth, as well as environmental concerns, have led to a shift in energy policy in virtually all developed countries and many developing countries toward adopting clean energy sources such as wind and solar power. A key consideration for developing a renewable electricity site is the long-term expected production of the facility, including seasonal wind or irradiance patterns and interannual variations

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Andrew Clifton
and
Julie K. Lundquist

evaluation of pairing between sites and wind turbines . Renewable Energy , 32 , 1934 – 1947 . Jain , A. K. , 2010 : Data clustering: 50 years beyond k -means . Pattern Recognit. Lett. , 31 , 651 – 666 . Jain , A. K. , R. P. Duin , and J. Mao , 2000 : Statistical pattern recognition: A review . IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. , 22 , 4 – 37 . Johnson , W. , and N. Kelley , 2000 : Design specifications for the development of the initial validation software (version 3

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Georgios Deskos
,
Joseph C. Y. Lee
,
Caroline Draxl
, and
Michael A. Sprague

Authority, and Massachusetts Clean Energy Center are deploying floating lidars along the East Coast ( Filippelli et al. 2015 ). The near-surface meteorological and oceanic measurements supplement the lidar data. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy, Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) announced in April 2020 a funding opportunity ( EERE 2020 ) for an offshore wind resource measurement and modeling science topic area to provide funding for an offshore field study to address a need to improve

Open access
Pedro A. Jiménez
,
Jaemo Yang
,
Ju-Hye Kim
,
Manajit Sengupta
, and
Jimy Dudhia

material is based upon work performed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), which is a major facility sponsored by the National Science Foundation under Cooperative Agreement 1852977. We also acknowledge high-performance computing support from Cheyenne ( https://doi.org/10.5065/D6RX99HX ) provided by NCAR’s Computational and Information Systems Laboratory, sponsored by the National Science Foundation. This work was authored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, operated by

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Matthew L. Aitken
,
Robert M. Banta
,
Yelena L. Pichugina
, and
Julie K. Lundquist

Center (NWTC), a research and development facility operated by the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) just south of Boulder, Colorado. Full-scale measurements of wake dynamics are hardly practical or even possible with conventional sensors, such as cup anemometers mounted on meteorological (met) masts. Accordingly, the high-resolution Doppler lidar (HRDL) developed by the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric

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Anna C. Fitch
,
Joseph B. Olson
,
Julie K. Lundquist
,
Jimy Dudhia
,
Alok K. Gupta
,
John Michalakes
, and
Idar Barstad

1. Introduction Wind energy has become the fastest-growing renewable energy resource worldwide, with wind farms in development covering increasingly large areas. Greater understanding of the interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer (BL) and wind turbines is necessary to ensure energy production and the lifetime of turbines are maximized. In addition, questions are emerging over the potential impacts of wind farms on meteorology, and their ability to affect downwind agriculture and

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