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S. Jerez, R. M. Trigo, S. M. Vicente-Serrano, D. Pozo-Vázquez, R. Lorente-Plazas, J. Lorenzo-Lacruz, F. Santos-Alamillos, and J. P. Montávez

1. Introduction To promote a sustainable future, Europe allocates large amounts of public and private investment money to renewable energy power plants as part of both 1) mitigation and adaptation strategies to the current climate change affecting with particular intensity the western sector of the Mediterranean Sea basin ( Giorgi 2006 ) and 2) economic development and energetic independence plans allowing for reductions in expensive imports of nonrenewable resources ( Patel 2011 ). Both

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Kenji Doering and Scott Steinschneider

1. Introduction Continued growth in the U.S. renewable energy sector is critical to reduce national greenhouse gas emissions under growing population and energy demands. In 2017, hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy contributed 7.5%, 6.3%, and 1.3% of total U.S. generation, respectively. High growth in wind (8.65% yr −1 ) and solar (42% yr −1 ) over the last 5 years has been driven by declines in unit cost from technological advances, economies of scale in production, and federal and state

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Carlo Aall, Tarje Wanvik, and Brigt Dale

“forestry” as the most frequently cited research terms addressing this issue, whereas “energy” was among the least cited. Furthermore, the task of integrating adaptation and mitigation efforts seems to have gained more weight in local rather than national policy-making levels ( Schreurs 2008 ). According to a special report on renewable energy sources and climate change by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), increasing capacity for producing renewable energy is a key to mitigating

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Rasmus Karlsson and Jonathan Symons

little help to rapidly industrializing countries ( Bailey Compston 2012 ) or to the many billions who lack access to modern energy altogether ( Bazilian and Pielke 2013 ). Warranted as the environmentalist critique of “consumption society” may sometimes be, the associated focus on energy conservation and demand-side reductions has obscured how much energy production needs to be scaled up in order to accommodate a world of 7 billion people. In general, renewable energy sources rely on harvesting and

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Takeshi Watanabe, Takahiro Takamatsu, and Takashi Y. Nakajima

1. Introduction Renewable energy systems are looked at as a solution to the problem of global warming because such systems are not based on fossil fuels and emit less carbon dioxide throughout their life cycle. Solar power generation systems, which use solar irradiance as an energy source, are a major type of renewable energy system. Currently, more information about and further understanding of surface solar irradiance features are desired. While the intensity of global solar irradiance at

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Janel Hanrahan, Alexandria Maynard, Sarah Y. Murphy, Colton Zercher, and Allison Fitzpatrick

1. Introduction Observed increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, are largely attributed to global energy use that depends on the combustion of fossil fuels ( Canadell et al. 2007 ; Le Quéré et al. 2009 ; Andres et al. 2012 ). To mitigate this and resulting global climate changes moving forward, an increasing portion of this energy must come from renewable sources ( IPCC 2011 ). There are currently 29 U.S. states with goals of obtaining most or all of their

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Steven Hanna, Mark Askelson, Marshall Shepherd, Mariana A. Fragomeni, Neil Debbage, and Bradford Johnson

, natural gas, hydropower, nuclear, and now wind and solar renewable energy ( Ritchie and Roser 2018 ). Although the deployment of energy typically corresponds to the development in a region, its air pollution is shared around the world via long-range transport, although the impact is worse near the source. Additionally, as commercialization grew, so did its impact on air quality. In the mid-1900s, pollution in cities caused major health issues, with stories of devastating results, such as the famous

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Philip E. Bett, Hazel E. Thornton, Julia F. Lockwood, Adam A. Scaife, Nicola Golding, Chris Hewitt, Rong Zhu, Peiqun Zhang, and Chaofan Li

greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution has driven an increase in the amount of electricity supplied by renewable sources. This has, in turn, resulted in an increase in the weather dependence of energy supply systems and therefore an increase in the possible utility of weather and climate forecasting to the sector. The energy sector in China faces more severe issues than do the energy sectors of other countries. China is the coldest country during winter, and the hottest during summer, among countries

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Karoliina Hämäläinen, Elena Saltikoff, Otto Hyvärinen, Ville Vakkari, and Sami Niemelä

renewable energy has created a need for new types of weather services. While hydropower needs long-term precipitation data and can be used as energy reserves, solar and wind power are more dependent on prevailing weather conditions. Currently, the wind energy sector is growing rapidly. During the year 2017, the amount of new wind power installed globally was 52.5 GW, raising the total installed capacity to 539 GW ( Global Wind Energy Council 2017 ). Wind energy companies use wind forecasts to maximize

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P. Michael Link, Jürgen Böhner, Hermann Held, and Jürgen Scheffran

MODELLIERUNG ERNEUERBARER ENERGIERESSOURCEN (MODELING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES) What : A group of scientists discussed issues of the modeling of renewable energy resources within the context of climate change and land use with an emphasis on northern Germany, providing current research results, identifying knowledge gaps, and discussing emerging research questions. When : 17 July 2017 Where : Hamburg, Germany Renewable energy production plays an important role in northern Germany. In

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