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  • Global Drought Information System - Drought Characterization, Occurrence, Driving Mechanisms, and Predictability Worldwide (GDIS Worldwide) x
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Lixia Zhang and Tianjun Zhou

datasets of agricultural areas influenced by drought are from the China planting industry information network. The historical record shows that drought frequency over north China (the blue region in Fig. 1a ) is much higher than that of flooding, because of the local deficiency of rainfall and high temperatures ( Zhang et al. 2003 ). Since the 1960s, and especially since the 1980s, north China has experienced consecutive drought periods, two of which caused a drying up of the Yellow River in 1972 and

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Mathew Barlow, Benjamin Zaitchik, Shlomit Paz, Emily Black, Jason Evans, and Andrew Hoell

impacts spanning crop failures; widespread livestock death; significant population migrations; increases in diseases (polio, cholera, diphtheria, typhoid, and tuberculosis); soil and land cover degradation; loss of orchards and fruit trees both as a result of direct drought impacts and through use as fuel; desiccation of internationally important wetlands; increase in household debt, with a disproportionate impact on women and children; and international boundary disputes over both river flows and

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Richard Seager and Martin Hoerling

ongoing drought since the mid-1990s ( Seager et al. 2009b ; Stahle et al. 2009 ). Further, the 1998 to 2004 drought in the United States—which, for example, dropped Colorado River storage to record lows—also severely impacted much of Canada ( Stewart and Lawford 2011 ; Bonsal et al. 2011 ). Given these transcontinental and multinational consequences of drought, considerable effort has been expended in an attempt to understand why they occur and whether they can be predicted in advance. In recent

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Siegfried D. Schubert, Ronald E. Stewart, Hailan Wang, Mathew Barlow, Ernesto H. Berbery, Wenju Cai, Martin P. Hoerling, Krishna K. Kanikicharla, Randal D. Koster, Bradfield Lyon, Annarita Mariotti, Carlos R. Mechoso, Omar V. Müller, Belen Rodriguez-Fonseca, Richard Seager, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Lixia Zhang, and Tianjun Zhou

. The east coast over southern Brazil and Uruguay, including northern and central Argentina (much of the La Plata River basin), has reduced precipitation associated with La Niña conditions ( Diaz et al. 1998 ; Fig. 1 , top). According to McCarthy et al. (2001) , during La Niña events Chile and central-western Argentina exhibit negative anomalies of rainfall and snowfall leading to reduced summer streamflow. Figure 5 illustrates the seasonality of the link to SST over northern South America and

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Siegfried D. Schubert, Hailan Wang, Randal D. Koster, Max J. Suarez, and Pavel Ya. Groisman

largest precipitation variance over northern Eurasia occurs over European Russia extending eastward along about 55°N—a region for which the maximum rainfall in summer is associated with cyclones from the Atlantic reaching the Yenissey River Valley in central Siberia. Other regions with relatively large precipitation variance are found in the west Caucasus and in the mountainous regions of southeastern Russia/northeast China. Minimum variances are seen in the desert regions east of the Caspian Sea

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