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A. Porson, D. G. Steyn, and G. Schayes

1. Introduction Sea breezes are mesoscale circulations induced by differential heating between sea and land. Opposing winds acting on sea breezes can reduce air quality at coastlines by creating an area of calm winds at the front ( Pielke and Segal 1986 ). Opposing winds can also strengthen vertical velocities at the front ( Gilliam et al. 2004 ) and affect cloud formation and thunderstorm development at coastlines. If too strong, opposing winds can suppress sea breezes ( Arritt 1993 ). The

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F. J. Robinson, M. D. Patterson, and S. C. Sherwood

1. Introduction Gravity or density currents are predominantly horizontal flows where gravity drives fluid motion because of density gradients within a fluid. Such currents are ubiquitous in the atmospheric boundary layer ( Smith and Reeder 1988 ). A common example is marine air advancing onto land as a sea breeze, which is initiated by differential solar heating of land and water surfaces (well-known examples include the Fremantle and Cape Doctors in Perth and Cape Town, respectively; Gentilli

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Tingting Qian, Craig C. Epifanio, and Fuqing Zhang

1. Introduction Broadly speaking, the sea-breeze circulation consists of the local- and regional-scale responses to differential surface heating between the land and sea. This circulation plays a role in many atmospheric and oceanic phenomena in coastal areas, including thunderstorm initiation, the modulation of air pollution and fog, and the driving of wind-forced ocean currents. As such, the sea breeze has been studied extensively from a number of perspectives, including observational

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Xingchao Chen, Fuqing Zhang, and Kun Zhao

1. Introduction The land and sea breeze is a localized circulation driven by the diurnal varying differential heating between land and ocean. This phenomenon can be found in almost every coastal area around the world from the tropics (e.g., Qian 2012 ) to the polar regions (e.g., Bromwich et al. 2005 ). Nowadays, more than 40% of the world population lives within 150 km of the coastline; thus the land- and sea-breeze circulations may have a huge impact on air pollution (e.g., Zhang et al

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Christopher M. Hill, Patrick J. Fitzpatrick, James H. Corbin, Yee H. Lau, and Sachin K. Bhate

1. Introduction The sea-breeze circulation (SBC) has long been recognized as a significant mesoscale phenomenon affecting weather conditions throughout coastal regions of the world. According to the early works of Haurwitz (1947) and Neumann (1951) , the extent to which the discrete, forward-propagating surface boundary of the SBC—known as the sea-breeze front (SBF; see Table 1 for a list of the key acronyms used in this paper)—migrates inland, and the manner in which it is oriented

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YaoKun Li and JiPing Chao

1. Introduction The sea–land breeze (SLB), a common phenomenon mainly observed in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), is induced by the diurnal rhythms of the thermal contrast between land and sea. It is one of the oldest topics that meteorologists are interested in and has been studied extensively by numerous observational and numerical studies [for example, see review papers by Abbs and Physick (1992) , Miller et al. (2003) , and Crosman and Horel (2010) ]. Moreover, analytical studies

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Christopher P. Hughes and Dana E. Veron

1. Introduction Sea-breeze circulations are mesoscale, thermally driven systems that frequently impact the coastal climate. Sea breezes are experienced by communities located along ocean coastlines, home to approximately 39% of the population of the United States in addition to hosting millions of tourists annually ( U.S. Census Bureau 2011 ). A sea-breeze circulation can develop when there is a horizontal, atmospheric surface temperature gradient that creates a surface pressure gradient, with

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Xiaoqian Zhang, Steven F. DiMarco, David C. Smith IV, Matthew K. Howard, Ann E. Jochens, and Robert D. Hetland

1. Introduction The existence of sea-breeze circulation patterns in the atmosphere at coastal boundaries was recognized over a century ago ( Davis et al. 1890 ). The diurnal heating of the land surface during summer months produces a land–sea thermal gradient that propagates as an atmospheric gravity current and forces cyclic onshore–offshore wind flows with 24-h periodicity. The traditional view of sea breeze is onshore flow during the day to replace rising motions heated at the coast

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Tingting Qian, Craig C. Epifanio, and Fuqing Zhang

1. Introduction The sea breeze circulation is an atmospheric response to differential surface heating between the land and the sea. It impacts many atmospheric processes over coastal regions including, but not limited to, the initiation and modulation of thunderstorms, fog, and air pollution. Over the past two centuries since the first known published study on sea breeze by Halley (1686) , there have been numerous studies on this subject based on different approaches: observational ( Fisher

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Xiaoqian Zhang, David C. Smith IV, Steven F. DiMarco, and Robert D. Hetland

(e.g., Munk and Wunsch 1998 ). They can be generated by sudden change of the local surface wind stress (e.g., passage of a front/storm/hurricane) or periodic wind forcing associated with the sea breeze near the coast. Locally generated near-inertial motions can propagate equatorward of the critical latitude in the form of internal waves up to thousands of kilometers along the ray path (e.g., Kroll 1975 ; Gill 1984 ; Kunze 1985 ; Garrett 2001 ; Alford 2003 ). The critical latitude (30° for

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