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Jeremy L. Weiss, Christopher L. Castro, and Jonathan T. Overpeck

2000s drought was significantly greater in magnitude and extent than during the 1950s drought. Warmer temperatures during the 2000s drought, coupled with low precipitation, seemingly drove higher vegetation water stress, increased susceptibility to insect infestations, and more plant mortality than during the relatively cooler and drier 1950s drought. d. Seasonality and effects of warmer temperatures during drought in the Southwest Although it is not clear if anthropogenic climate change has

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Hyodae Seo, Shang-Ping Xie, Raghu Murtugudde, Markus Jochum, and Arthur J. Miller

Sivakumar (2003) also discuss the formation mechanism and seasonal cycle of the BL in the northern Indian Ocean. They showed that the build up of the BL during summertime becomes most prominent by February in the following year, reaching a maximum thickness of 50 m. The boreal winter is the period when the hydrological forcing generates its largest freshening effects through the river discharge and local rainfall. The BLT subsequently diminishes from February to a minimum in May before onset of the

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Lawrence S. Jackson and Piers M. Forster

1. Introduction Existing research has identified factors such as solar radiation and cloud cover as influential for diurnal temperature range (DTR) over the global land surface, but how comprehensively do they account for the observed seasonal and geographic variation? This study describes the seasonal and geographic variations in DTR using empirical regression relationships with a selection of key meteorological and surface parameters. The aim is to quantify the relationships they have with

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Z. Long, W. Perrie, J. Gyakum, D. Caya, and R. Laprise

simulations of local temperature, evaporation, and precipitation compared to simulations that neglect the lake effects. For example, the presence of the Great Lakes results in a phase shift in the annual cycles of latent and sensible heat fluxes, increases of the local evaporation and precipitation during the autumn and winter, and alters the meridional air temperature gradient ( Lofgren 1997 ; Bates et al. 1993 ; Hostetler et al. 1993 ; Bonan 1995 ). While most atmosphere–lake studies have focused on

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Karl Stein, Niklas Schneider, Axel Timmermann, and Fei-Fei Jin

explain the seasonal synchronization of ENSO events in terms of the effects of the eastern equatorial Pacific annual cycle on the stability of the equatorial Pacific coupled ocean–atmosphere system. The annual cycle of the eastern tropical Pacific can be well characterized by the seasonal movement of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), which resides north of the equator and stretches across the Pacific basin. This is because the large-scale atmospheric motion of the tropical Pacific corresponds

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Yongkang Xue, Fernando De Sales, Ratko Vasic, C. Roberto Mechoso, Akio Arakawa, and Stephen Prince

global and seasonal assessment of VBP effects on the water cycle. The assessment was conducted at the global scale (i.e., is not limited to one or two regions) in recognition of the strong interconnections between regional climates, and covers all seasons (i.e., is not limited to the summer). The impact at long temporal scales, however, is not addressed in this study. VBPs include (but are not limited to) radiative transfer in the canopy, moisture exchange between soil layers and extraction by roots

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Yoshiro Tsutsui

disturbance term. I also estimate the equation that includes seasonal dummies, where winter is defined as December to February, spring as March to May, summer as June to August, and fall as September to November. However, the dummies are not significant at all, and the estimates and their significance of other variables are almost unchanged, so that I do not mention these results in later sections. 11 I estimate each equation with three models: ordinary least squares (OLS), a fixed effects model, and a

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Daniel M. Gilford and Susan Solomon

; Gettelman et al. 2004 ; Randel et al. 2006 ; Solomon et al. 2010 ; Maycock et al. 2011 , 2014 ; Dessler et al. 2013 ; Gilford et al. 2016 ; Wang et al. 2016 ). In this study we investigate the radiative effects of water vapor and ozone seasonal cycles in the tropical lower stratosphere in detail. In particular, we explore radiative sensitivities to the overlying vertical structures of these seasonal cycles along with their latitudinal variability. Tropical lower-stratospheric water vapor displays

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Jason Schatz and Christopher J. Kucharik

focus in particular on seasonal variation in urban climate effects. The analysis will proceed in three parts: 1) spatial patterns and processes over time, 2) daily variation in UHI intensity, and 3) seasonal patterns and drivers of UHI intensity. 2. Methods a. Study area Madison is a city of 233 000 in the north-central United States (43°N, 89°W) with an estimated 2012 urban agglomeration population of 407 000 ( Demographia 2013 ). It has a humid-continental climate (Köppen classification: Dfa

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Shang-Ping Xie

NOVEMBER 1996 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 2945Effects of Seasonal Solar Forcing on Latitudinal Asymmetry of the ITCZ SHANG-PING KIEGraduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan12 February 1996 and 1 May 1996ABSTRACT A coupled ocean-atmosphere model is used to investigate the effects of seasonal variation in

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