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Daisuke Hotta and Hisashi Nakamura

, they investigated whether a steady response to each of the forcings can act to reinforce the mean baroclinicity in each of the storm-track regions. In the North Atlantic and the North Pacific, the effect of poleward eddy heat flux that acts to reduce the mean-flow baroclinicity tends to be offset by a restoring effect by diabatic heating (see Figs. 4d, 6d, 7d in HV90 ). In HV90 ’s experiments, however, it is not possible to evaluate the relative importance among latent, sensible, and radiative

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Gerald N. Flerchinger, Michele L. Reba, and Danny Marks

actually upward, indicating unstable conditions at the top of the canopy. This is because solar heating of the aspen trees created upward sensible heat flux in the upper layers of the canopy. Obviously somewhere within the canopy, heat flux must be downward toward the snow surface during snowmelt. However, even at the 4.5-m height within the understory, there was sufficient solar warming of the aspen trees that midday measured sensible heat flux was positive, or upward, as plotted in Fig. 3 . This

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Rujin Shen, Elmar R. Reiter, and James F. Bresch

15OCTOBER 1986 RUJIN SHEN, ELMAR R. REITER AND JAMES F. BRESCH 2241Some Aspects of the Effects of Sensible Heating on the Development of Summer Weather Systems over the Tibetan Plateau RUJIN SHEN,* ELMAR R. REITER AND JAMES F. BRESCHDepartment of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523(Manuscript received 23 August 1985, in final form 21 April 1986)ABSTRACT The influence of sensible heating

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Yuya Takane, Hiroaki Kondo, Hiroyuki Kusaka, Jin Katagi, Osamu Nagafuchi, Koyomi Nakazawa, Naoki Kaneyasu, and Yoshihiro Miyakami

wind (Fig. 16 in Takane and Kusaka 2011 ) was the dominant factor. This foehnlike wind is similar to type II except that the temperature is more greatly increased by diabatic heating with subgrid-scale turbulent diffusion and sensible heat flux from the ground ( Takane and Kusaka 2011 ; Takane et al. 2015 ). In other words, the foehnlike wind has the features of a sum of the traditional dry foehn effect with adiabatic heating plus dry-diabatic heating (sensible heat flux) from the ground surface

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Paquita Zuidema, David Painemal, Simon de Szoeke, and Chris Fairall

diurnal refers to diurnal variations in the free-troposphere subsidence, and includes orographically induced variations felt remotely as an offshore propagation forced by sensible heating of the dry Andes (e.g., Garreaud and Muñoz 2004 ) or locally through modifications of a land–sea-breeze circulation (e.g., Rutllant et al. 2003 ). Three months of MODIS data (October 2005, 2006, and 2007) were combined to reduce sampling noise and to improve elucidation of the regional and diurnal features. The

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Kun Yang, Jun Qin, Xiaofeng Guo, Degang Zhou, and Yaoming Ma

1. Introduction It is well recognized that the Tibetan Plateau (TP) provides an elevated heat source for the North Hemisphere ( Flohn 1957 ; Ye and Gao 1979 ), and this elevated heating drives the TP monsoon, enhances the Asian monsoon circulation, and significantly influences precipitation in China ( He et al. 1987 ; Yanai et al. 1992 ; Wu and Zhang 1998 ; Qian et al. 2004 ; Liu et al. 2007 ). The sensible heat flux is a major component of the TP heat source and has been addressed for

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F. Castellví and R. L. Snyder

and large areas of uniform fetch, which are uncommon in many grape production areas.” Because the surface renewal (SR) method may operate close to the canopy ( Paw U et al. 1995 , 2005 ), fetch requirements may be minimized, which makes it a useful micrometeorological method for small grape vineyards where fetch requirements limit the application of other methods. Spano et al. (2000) , Castellví et al. (2002) , and Castellví (2004) have used the SR method to estimate sensible heat flux H

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J. M. Edwards

proportional to so there is considerable interest in the value of this ratio at wind speeds typical in intense tropical storms. It has, for example, been suggested that sea spray may greatly enhance sensible heat fluxes ( Andreas 2011 ), causing to be significantly greater than 1 in such systems. Nevertheless, the effect of sea spray remains uncertain ( Veron 2015 ). In the original version of the model, dissipative heating was neglected, but it was included by Bister and Emanuel (1998) , who showed

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J. L. Heitman, R. Horton, T. J. Sauer, and T. M. DeSutter

). Unfortunately, inability to measure heat transfer at the finescale necessary to observe evaporative processes has limited investigation. Instead, the soil sensible heat flux is typically measured below the soil surface and a correction is made for the change in sensible heat storage above the flux measurement (e.g., Fuchs and Tanner 1968 ; Massman 1993 ). Latent heat is then accounted for at the plane of the soil surface, despite the moving depth of the evaporation front below the soil surface ( de Vries

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Jinghua Chen, Xiaoqing Wu, Yan Yin, Chunsong Lu, Hui Xiao, Qian Huang, and Liping Deng

heat fluxes, are among the important factors in the occurrence of boundary layer clouds (e.g., Ek and Holtslag 2004 ). The moistening and heating of shallow cumuli in the boundary layer can provide favorable conditions for the triggering of deep convection (e.g., Gentine et al. 2013 ; Wu et al. 2009 ). Furthermore, the air mass near the surface can be lifted upward by the strong surface sensible heat over the TP, which is a branch of the meridional circulation between the TP and the Indian Ocean

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