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Andreas Muhlbauer and Ulrike Lohmann

Basis, S. Solomon et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 499–588 . Diehl , K. , and S. Wurzler , 2004 : Heterogeneous drop freezing in the immersion mode: Model calculations considering soluble and insoluble particles in the drops. J. Atmos. Sci. , 61 , 2063 – 2072 . Diehl , K. , M. Simmel , and S. Wurzler , 2006 : Numerical sensitivity studies on the impact of aerosol properties and drop freezing modes on the glaciation, microphysics, and dynamics of clouds. J. Geophys. Res

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Lorenzo Tomassini, Peter Reichert, Reto Knutti, Thomas F. Stocker, and Mark E. Borsuk

for this purpose, since these models are very expensive to run. Therefore in many studies, climate models of intermediate complexity are employed. Their short runtimes make the application of rigorous statistical methods possible, while they are still able to reproduce the mean climate characteristics on a global scale. Furthermore, due to the simplified nature of such models, model-independent climate system properties, such as the climate sensitivity, can be treated as explicit parameters, which

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Adelina Alexandru, Ramon de Elia, René Laprise, Leo Separovic, and Sébastien Biner

improved precipitation pattern. In a previous study, Miguez-Macho et al. (2004) had shown that SN also reduced the sensitivity of regional precipitation patterns to the choice of model domain and grid geometry, while maintaining the RCM-simulated small-scale structures. Meinke et al. (2006) showed a better agreement of simulated cloudiness with satellite-derived observations with SN. The study of Weisse and Feser (2003) demonstrated that intermittent divergence in phase space is strongly reduced

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Brian C. Ancell and Clifford F. Mass

plausible that the validity of adjoint sensitivities decreases as resolution increases. Previous studies at about 100-km horizontal resolution have shown a good tangent linear approximation of the nonlinear model out to about 1.5 days ( Vukicevic 1991 ; Errico and Vukicevic 1992 ), and even less in regions of explosive cyclogenesis. Gilmour et al. (2001) has shown that the tangent linear approximation is usually valid less than a day, based on examining the ECMWF SV-based ensemble system run at T159L

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Kosuke Ito, Yoichi Ishikawa, Yoshiaki Miyamoto, and Toshiyuki Awaji

condensation contributes to changes in the maximum tangential velocity following a decrease in the central pressure field is an inadequate description of the time-dependent behavior. In this study, we perform a sensitivity analysis by using a cloud-permitting nonhydrostatic axisymmetric adjoint model to examine the role of sea surface fluctuations in determining the intensity of a mature-state hurricane. The adjoint-based analysis can trace the sensitivity of the response function backward in time, as is

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T. N. Krishnamurti, Anu Simon, Aype Thomas, Akhilesh Mishra, Dev Sikka, Dev Niyogi, Arindam Chakraborty, and Li Li

schematically illustrated in Fig. 4 . In this paper the observational aspects using conventional datasets and vertical cross sections from CloudSat , sensitivity using a mesoscale high-resolution Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model (ARW-WRF), and validation of this scenario are addressed. The goal of this study is to illustrate the major role of soil moisture, stratiform cloud, and divergent circulations for the motion of the onset isochrones from Kerala at 10°N to New Delhi near 25°N

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Song-You Hong, Kyo-Sun Sunny Lim, Ju-Hye Kim, Jeong-Ock Jade Lim, and Jimy Dudhia

of the WSM6 microphysics will be evaluated, relative to that of the PLIN scheme in 2D idealized and 3D real-case experiment platforms, focusing on the major differences in the treatment of ice properties and their sedimentation velocity. Regarding the sedimentation velocity versus microphysics in previous studies, McCumber et al. (1991) , in their simulations of tropical squall lines, found that within a particular type of scheme, the greatest sensitivity was due to the physical parameters of

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Benjamin R. J. Schwedler and Michael E. Baldwin

to analyze and present the response of binary image metrics to changes in the forecast situation. Section 2 presents the formulation of the binary distance measures analyzed in this work and includes a discussion of the properties a distance measure must satisfy in order to be classified as a metric. Section 3 details the synthetic forecast situation used to study the response of these distance measures to changes in base rate, bias, and displacement. In section 4 , three scenarios with

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Zhining Tao, Allen Williams, Ho-Chun Huang, Michael Caughey, and Xin-Zhong Liang

BEIS2), and may produce different BVOC emissions from BEIS2 ( Yin et al. 2004 ). However, the purpose of this study is to reveal the sensitivity of BVOC emissions and subsequent O 3 concentrations to different meteorological inputs that result from the RCM downscaling with different cumulus parameterizations. The use of BEIS2 is sufficient and is not expected to change our key conclusions. c. Regional Air-Quality Model The AQM is developed from the San Joaquin Valley Air Quality Study

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Xuanli Li and Zhaoxia Pu

notable differences in the intensity forecast. Although most of the aforementioned sensitivity studies investigated the roles of physical parameterization schemes in the numerical simulations of hurricanes, it is still not clear how and why the physical parameterizations influence the simulated storm development because of the complex interactions among the physical processes in numerical models. In addition, little progress has been made in the understanding of the rapid intensification of hurricanes

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