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S. P. de Szoeke, C. W. Fairall, and Sergio Pezoa

) near-surface meteorology, cloud remote sensing and aerosol number sampling from the ship, and upper-air soundings. The NOAA PSD Weather and Climate Physics Branch [formerly the Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL)] has outfitted the RHB with a mobile set of accurate and fast sensors that acquire observations of the near-surface atmosphere with an accuracy suitable to compute air–sea fluxes ( Fairall et al. 2003 ). Instruments on a jackstaff at the bow of the ship sample air temperature

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Shawn R. Smith, Kristen Briggs, Nicolas Lopez, and Vassiliki Kourafalou

improving numerical models can best be achieved using high-quality evaluation datasets. Herein we demonstrate the application of in situ observations collected by automated instrumentation on ships at sampling rates ≤5 min as a means to evaluate numerical model analyses. The focus is on physical oceanographic parameters (velocity, salinity, and sea temperature); however, the techniques demonstrated could be applied using atmospheric, chemical, or biological measurements from similar vessels. The use of

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Edmund K. M. Chang

reanalyses is ship observations. Zorita et al. (1992) have examined variability of the standard deviation of MSLP taken from the monthly summary statistics of the International Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS; see Woodruff et al. 1987 ; Worley et al. 2005 ). Chang (2005 , hereafter C05 ) examined MSLP observations over the central North Pacific contained in the ICOADS and found that, because of changes in the frequency and quality of observations, there may be time-dependent biases

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W. Porch, R. Borys, P. Durkee, R. Gasparovic, W. Hooper, E. Hindman, and K. Nielsen

Introduction Ship-track clouds were first described by Conover (1966) as anomalous cloud lines observed in satellite images. These cloud lines can extend for hundreds of kilometers and persist for several days. Multiple observations made from a small research vessel (R/V Glorita ) during the Monterey Area Ship Tracks (MAST) experiment in June 1994 are combined to describe the physical and dynamic characteristics of ship-track clouds. A wide variety of aerosol and meteorological parameters

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Clément Rousset and Lisa M. Beal

attributed to this channel ( Johns et al. 2002 ). However, there was large uncertainty because of a lack of observations in some passages. Two years of more recent direct measurements across the channel (“Canek” program, August 1999–June 2001) gave a mean transport of 23.1 ± 3.1 Sv ( Candela et al. 2003 ). The authors noted the large discrepancy between the Yucatan Channel and Florida Strait transports and ventured the hypothesis that it could be related to poorly known transports through Old Bahama and

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A. K. Laing

M^- 1985 A.K. LAING 481An Assessment of Wave Observations from Ships in Southern Oceans A. K. LAINGNew Zealand Meteorological Service(Manuscript received 3 May 1984, in final form 19 November 1984)ABSTRACT Observations of wind waves and swell from ship reports are investigated. Comparisons are made betweenestimates of wave parameters made from ships in

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G. Guo and J. A. Coakley Jr.

to coatings on radiometer domes ( Medovaya et al. 2002 ) and tilts from winds and currents. In addition, rocking by sea swell can cause appreciable biases ( Katsaros and DeVault 1986 ; MacWhorter and Weller 1991 ). Also, the radiometer measurements can suffer from “shadowing” of the fields of view by parts of the ship. The goals of this study are to 1) assess the quality of shipboard pyranometer and pyrgeometer observations collected during operations of the research vessel Wecoma off the

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Joseph M. Sienkiewicz

DECEMBER 1990 FORECASTER'S FORUM 683FORECASTER'S FORUMAn Example of the Importance of Ship Observations JOSEPH M. SlENKIEW1CZMeteorological Operations Division, NMC, NWS, NOAA, Washington, D.C.(Manuscript received 9 August 1990, in final form 9 August 1990) ABSTRACT The impact of one ship observation on the National Meteorological Center's (NMC) North Atlantic

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J. F. T. Saur

JutqE 1963 J. F. T. S A U R 417A Study of the Quality of Sea Water Temperatures Reported in Logs of Ships' Weather Observations J. F. T. S^URU. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory, Stanford, Calif.(Manuscript received 27 August 1962, in revised form 14 January 1963)ABSTRACT The differences between sea water temperature reported in the

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R. Harikumar, N. K. Hithin, T. M. Balakrishnan Nair, P. Sirisha, B. Krishna Prasad, C. Jeyakumar, Shailesh Nayak, and S. S. C. Shenoi

have employed a procedure on the SWHM data similar to that of Caballero et al. (2011) , discarding all observations for which Hs > 20 m or Hs < 0.1 m, as well as any observation not falling within the ship’s track. Data collocation Both forecast data and observational data should be prepared in a similar manner for a meaningful comparison. SWHM data were 1-h averages and essentially point measurements, while the model forecast data were 3-hourly averages over a 0.10° × 0.10° area. Hence, for

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