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Felipe D. Costa, Otávio C. Acevedo, Luiz E. Medeiros, Rafael Maroneze, Franciano S. Puhales, Arlindo D. Carvalho Jr., Luis F. Camponogara, Daniel M. dos Santos, and Luca Mortarini

the atmospheric levels are vertically decoupled from each other arises naturally in Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) models of the SBL, regardless of the domain size and number of vertical levels considered, and these results have been later confirmed by McNider et al. (2012) using a complete single-column model. Both Derbyshire (1999) and Ansorge and Mellado (2014) have raised the important question whether such decoupling in the models is only a feature of the system of equations or

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Michael Optis and Adam Monahan

; Poulos et al. 2002 ) and modeling experiments (e.g., flux–gradient relationship analysis, 1D and 3D atmospheric models). Within the surface layer (SL), Monin–Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) is an accurate method for relating turbulent fluxes to properties of the mean flow ( Monin and Obukhov 1954 ). Above the SL in the SBL (where MOST does not apply), single-column models (SCMs) are often used to formulate or evaluate a turbulence parameterization scheme. These models are advantageous because of

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Aaron D. Kennedy, Xiquan Dong, Baike Xi, Patrick Minnis, Anthony D. Del Genio, Audrey B. Wolf, and Mandana M. Khaiyer

assume that to reasonably simulate future climate, these models should be able to accurately reproduce the current climatology of all clouds at a given location. Due to the complexities of GCMs, the Single Column Model (SCM) approach was developed to evaluate parameterizations ( Randall et al. 1996 ) and has been implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program ( Ackerman and Stokes 2003 ) to improve the representation of clouds and radiation in GCMs using long-term surface

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Adrian Sescu and Charles Meneveau

mean flow direction at the hub height, as required by the actuator disk model, is imposed using the algorithm presented in Sescu and Meneveau (2014) . We use LES and theoretical considerations to derive model equations for the effective roughness length—as an extension of the single-column analysis of Calaf et al. (2010 , 2011) to thermally stratified conditions—and to study the influence that a very large wind turbine array can have on the vertical turbulent momentum and heat fluxes. Both

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Anna-Lena Deppenmeier, Rein J. Haarsma, Chiel van Heerwaarden, and Wilco Hazeleger

6°S, 8°E PIRATA mooring. With the single-column model (SCM) we can investigate processes active on very short time scales. This is impractical, if not impossible, with the three-dimensional model. With the coupled SCM, as opposed to the standalone version of the atmosphere and the ocean, we can investigate coupled air–sea processes, and the effect of the model bias in one component on the other component. In this work we first test the impact of the atmosphere on the ocean, and then focus on

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Jared A. Lee, Joshua P. Hacker, Luca Delle Monache, Branko Kosović, Andrew Clifton, Francois Vandenberghe, and Javier Sanz Rodrigo

offshore wind energy production. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact on hub-height offshore wind 1-h forecasts that result from the estimation of a key parameter in the marine ABL using ensemble DA and a single-column model (SCM). Secondarily, we want to find out if estimation of this key parameter also improves the prediction of the momentum fluxes, which play an important role in ABL development. These findings will provide some indication of how much model error in the marine ABL is

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Tatsuya Seiki and Woosub Roh

simulation. A single-column model with a typical environmental condition of low-level mixed-phase clouds over the Southern Ocean was used for the comparison. Utility of single-column models to capture low-level mixed-phase clouds was found in Klein et al. (2009) . We demonstrate how to improve the biases through sensitivity experiments, step by step. In section 2 , the single-column model and its settings are described. In section 3 , budget analysis and a series of sensitivity experiments are shown

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Jacob P. Edman and David M. Romps

1. Introduction In recent decades, single-column atmospheric models, including cloud-resolving models and single-column versions of global climate models, have come into widespread use as a means to develop and test new parameterizations for use in global climate models. To compare with observations, these limited-domain models are often forced with an observed profile of large-scale ascent (equivalently, a profile of large-scale convergence). This approach, however, has its drawbacks. For

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Adam H. Sobel and Christopher S. Bretherton

circulations. We discuss a simple single-column model formulation for application to this problem, and present results from two models developed by other authors that have been modified according to this formulation. Single-column models have been used by many investigators to study questions of climate (e.g., Manabe and Strickler 1964 ; Manabe and Wetherald 1967 ; Schneider and Dickinson 1974 ; Ramanathan and Coakley 1978; Sarachik 1978 ; Charlock and Sellers 1980 ; Nakajima et al. 1992 ; Rennó et

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Marion Saint-Lu, Robin Chadwick, F. Hugo Lambert, Matthew Collins, Ian Boutle, Michael Whitall, and Chimene Daleu

function of T S and RH S and that rainfall shifts can be diagnosed from the combination of T S shifts and RH S shifts. The general aim of this study is to test how much of the pattern of mean tropical precipitation and its response to climate change can be simulated from T S and RH S patterns using a single-column model (SCM) under the WTG approximation. This study first investigates how much of the present-day annual-mean tropical rainfall pattern simulated by a general circulation model (GCM

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