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David R. Novak, Brian A. Colle, and Sandra E. Yuter

precipitation. These effects are especially evident during the cool season, when the occurrence of snowbands often results in intense snowfall and extreme snowfall gradients ( Kocin and Uccellini 2004 , 177–186). Therefore, improving understanding of the structural and dynamical evolution of cool-season mesoscale bands can advance cool-season QPF skill. Cool-season banded precipitation occurs in a variety of types (e.g., Houze et al. 1976 ; Browning 1990 ; Hobbs et al. 1996 ). In a cool

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Sara A. Ganetis and Brian A. Colle

Connecticut and Long Island. Much of the heavy snow fell within a mesoscale snowband within the comma head of the cyclone with 7.5–10 cm h −1 (3–4 in. h −1 ) snow rates reported within the band and radar reflectivities exceeding 55 dB Z ( Picca et al. 2014 ). Fig . 1. (a) Storm total snowfall accumulation for 8–9 Feb 2013. (b) Topographic map showing the locations of Stony Brook University (SBNY); KOKX dual-polarized radar and upper-air site (KOKX); Chatham, MA, upper-air site (KCHH); KBOX dual

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Jaymes S. Kenyon, Daniel Keyser, Lance F. Bosart, and Michael S. Evans

majority of bands in the northwest quadrants of cyclones exhibited a distinct “pivot point,” with the bands pivoting as they translated with the parent system, and this pivot point was found to be a favored region for heavy precipitation accumulation. Furthermore, bands in other quadrants tended to move with the mean low- to midlevel flow in the vicinity of the band. In a recent study of northeast U.S. winter storms, Ganetis et al. (2018) found that mesoscale snowbands exhibiting along-axis motion

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Jaymes S. Kenyon, Daniel Keyser, Lance F. Bosart, and Michael S. Evans

majority of bands in the northwest quadrants of cyclones exhibited a distinct “pivot point,” with the bands pivoting as they translated with the parent system, and this pivot point was found to be a favored region for heavy precipitation accumulation. Furthermore, bands in other quadrants tended to move with the mean low- to midlevel flow in the vicinity of the band. In a recent study of northeast U.S. winter storms, Ganetis et al. (2018) found that mesoscale snowbands exhibiting along-axis motion

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Karen A. Kosiba, Joshua Wurman, Kevin Knupp, Kyle Pennington, and Paul Robinson

1. Introduction Some of the world’s most intense lake-effect snow events occur downstream of the North American Great Lakes. Lake-effect snow events often only impact a relatively small area, but, within that narrow corridor, snowfall amounts and rates can be substantial. Lake-effect snowbands are relatively shallow, ~2–3 km deep, and, consequently, Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WRS-88D) coverage of these events from long ranges can be insufficient to capture many of the small

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David R. Novak, Brian A. Colle, and Ron McTaggart-Cowan

) the stability below (above) the level of maximum heating, and induce a horizontal circulation that may be frontogenetical. Although this feedback is presumably active within a snowband of an extratropical cyclone, the role of the band’s latent heating on its own evolution has not been quantified. It is also not apparent if or how this feedback is disrupted during band dissipation. The vertical and horizontal distribution of moisture may also play a critical role in band evolution by modifying the

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Russ S. Schumacher, David M. Schultz, and John A. Knox

% chance of rain and snow for Cheyenne and a 30% chance of rain showers, snow showers, and thunderstorms in Fort Collins. The purpose of this paper is to understand the processes that led to the development of convection and to its organization into bands of two sizes (major and minor). The remainder of this article is organized as follows. In section 2 of this article, observations of the 16–17 February 2007 snowband event are presented, highlighting the environmental conditions leading to the

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Philip T. Bergmaier and Bart Geerts

1971 ). The fetch over the lake and the alignment with the lakes’ long axis helps determine the morphology and intensity of snowbands that develop ( Wiggin 1950 ; Lavoie 1972 ; Hjelmfelt 1990 ; Niziol et al. 1995 ). Under larger fetch conditions where the mean boundary layer flow is closely aligned with the long axis of a lake (in particular, the rather long and narrow eastern Great Lakes, Erie and Ontario), LE convection will typically organize into one long and often intense band oriented

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Daniel T. Eipper, Steven J. Greybush, George S. Young, Seth Saslo, Todd D. Sikora, and Richard D. Clark

2017 ; Steenburgh and Campbell 2017 ; Eipper et al. 2018 ). In particular, Eipper et al. (2018) found that cold air advection (CAA) in the upper portion of the boundary layer (BL) was strongly correlated with the inland penetration of lake-effect radar echoes. However, the influence of environmental baroclinity on the far-inland kinematic and dynamic structure of lake-effect snowbands has received little attention. Here we extend the investigation of Eipper et al. (2018) by evaluating

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Gary M. Lackmann and Gregory Thompson

-top generating cells (e.g., Stark et al. 2013 ; Keeler et al. 2016a , b ), and in regions of gravity wave activity in highly sheared frontal regions. However, to our knowledge, observations of snow lofting in the lower troposphere in association with mesoscale snowbands are few. More generally, detailed observations of air and hydrometeor motions in and near mesoscale snowbands are somewhat limited (e.g., Novak et al. 2008 ; Stark et al. 2013 ). Studies of mesoscale snowbands document the enhanced

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