Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 7,169 items for :

  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Mark S. Kulie and Ralf Bennartz

1. Introduction Snowfall composes a nonnegligible amount of the total precipitation that falls at many mid- and high-latitude locations and obviously has important hydrological and societal impacts. Snow also plays a crucial role in ice sheet dynamics, so knowledge of annual snowfall accumulations is extremely important to areas of the globe that are covered by large expanses of ice (e.g., Greenland, Antarctica, and alpine glacial regions). Additionally, the importance of obtaining robust

Full access
Sebastian S. Harkema, Emily B. Berndt, and Christopher J. Schultz

1. Introduction It is commonly accepted that thundersnow (TSSN) is the coexistence of lightning and/or thunder and snowfall observations ( Curran and Pearson 1971 ; Schultz 1999 ; Market et al. 2002 ; Crowe et al. 2006 ; Market and Becker 2009 ). Schultz (1999) mentioned that the lack of scientific inquiry regarding TSSN, compared to lightning in convective storms, was low because of the perceived lack of threat and perceived rarity associated with the phenomena. As such, TSSN draws a

Free access
Justin J. Hartnett, Jennifer M. Collins, Martin A. Baxter, and Don P. Chambers

1. Introduction Natural forces have always shaped the earth’s climate, but the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( Stocker et al. 2013) has noted a positive correlation between global air temperatures and carbon dioxide from anthropogenic sources. This finding has considerable implications for the regional climate of an area, especially in the snow-dominated latitudes of the United States. Snowfall is dependent on air temperatures that are at or below freezing. The greatest observed

Full access
Paul J. Roebber, Melissa R. Butt, Sarah J. Reinke, and Thomas J. Grafenauer

1. Introduction Recently, there have been attempts to provide improved guidance to forecasters concerning forecasts of snowfall ( Roebber et al. 2003 ; Dubé 2006 ; Cobb and Waldstreicher 2005 ; Baxter et al. 2005 ; Ware et al. 2006 ). Roebber et al. (2003) conducted a principal component analysis of radiosonde and surface data and identified seven factors that influence the diagnosis of snow ratio: solar radiation per month, low- to midlevel temperature, mid- to upper-level temperature

Full access
Sergey Y. Matrosov, Carroll Campbell, David Kingsmill, and Ellen Sukovich

basin (ARB). Depending on the temperature of a particular weather system, wintertime storms in this basin vary from all rainfall to all snowfall conditions. Most of the recent attention in X-band radar hydrometeorological applications was generally paid to rainfall studies, and snowfall measurements using radars operating at this frequency were not studied extensively. However, they are also quite important given the increased use of X-band radars in colder conditions. With appropriate retrieval

Full access
John P. Krasting, Anthony J. Broccoli, Keith W. Dixon, and John R. Lanzante

1. Introduction Snowfall is an important quantity that has meteorological, climatic, and societal dimensions. This study examines how total snowfall and the ratio of snowfall to total precipitation are projected to change during the twenty-first century. From a climate perspective, changes in snowfall potentially translate into changes in snow cover. Such changes are important to the radiative processes on Earth because of the reflective properties of snow-covered surfaces. Snow cover increases

Full access
Sebastian S. Harkema, Christopher J. Schultz, Emily B. Berndt, and Phillip M. Bitzer

occurrence, flash size, and flash radiance that can be applied in the detection of severe storms, lightning-initiated wildfires, and heavy snowfall rates in winter storms. Schultz et al. (2018) were the first to demonstrate the ability of GLM to identify lightning associated with snowfall (i.e., thundersnow, TSSN) for a lake-effect snow event in New York where lightning was detected in a winter environment in close proximity to tall man-made structures, thus providing evidence that GLM can detect

Full access
Michael Evans and Michael L. Jurewicz Sr.

1. Introduction Numerous theoretical and observational studies have shown that bands of heavy snow often occur in regions where upward vertical motion associated with forcing for large-scale ascent is enhanced within the ascending branch of a thermally direct circulation associated with strong, steeply sloped lower- to midtropospheric frontogenesis. Snowfall within these regions can be particularly heavy when the enhanced upward motion becomes collocated with a region of reduced or negative

Full access
Kenneth E. Kunkel, Michael A. Palecki, Kenneth G. Hubbard, David A. Robinson, Kelly T. Redmond, and David R. Easterling

1. Introduction Snow plays a critical role in the climate system through its effect on surface albedo and emissivity. It is likely to be a sensitive indicator of climate change in the cold season. Temporal variability in snow properties reflects fluctuations in both precipitation and temperature, sometimes with great sensitivity, and thus can add interpretive information about those elements. Snow on the ground and snowfall have a variety of significant socioeconomic positive and negative

Full access
L. Edel, C. Claud, C. Genthon, C. Palerme, N. Wood, T. L’Ecuyer, and D. Bromwich

general circulation models (GCMs) ( Rawlins et al. 2010 ). In addition, temperature increases impact the phase of precipitation, leading to a more rainy Arctic ( Bintanja and Selten 2014 ). A declining summer snowfall has also been reported over the last two decades, leading to a reduced area of snow-covered ice and a lower albedo, as well as a thinning of the sea ice and a delayed start of the sea ice growth ( Screen and Simmonds 2012 ). However, a thin snowpack on sea ice would allow more heat loss

Free access