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Guo-Yue Niu
and
Zong-Liang Yang

the climate system by altering soil thermal and hydrological properties. Freezing of soil water delays the winter cooling of the land surface, and thawing of the frozen soil delays the summer warming of the land surface ( Poutou et al. 2004 ). Frozen soil also affects the snowmelt runoff and soil hydrology by reducing the soil permeability. Runoff from the Arctic river systems is about 50% of the net flux of freshwater to the Arctic Ocean ( Barry and Serreze 2000 ). This is a large percentage when

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David W. Clow

. Observed changes include decreases in the proportion of precipitation falling as snow ( Knowles et al. 2006 ), decreases in 1 April snow-water equivalent (SWE) in snowpacks ( Mote 2006 ), and earlier runoff during the spring snowmelt period ( Cayan et al. 2001 ; McCabe and Clark 2005 ; Regonda et al. 2005 ; Stewart et al. 2005 ). These studies indicated that in the west, changes were most pronounced in the Cascade Mountains, the northern Sierra Nevada, and the northern Rocky Mountains, where

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Jessica D. Lundquist
and
Alan L. Flint

1. Introduction In the western United States, over half of the water supply comes from mountain snowpacks, and over the past 50 yr, warmer winters and springs have led to earlier snowmelt ( Stewart et al. 2005 ). The fraction of annual streamflow that runs off during late spring and early summer has declined by 10% to 25% ( Roos 1991 ; Wahl 1992 ; Dettinger and Cayan 1995 ). Snowmelt runoff timing has advanced by approximately one to three weeks in the large majority of mountainous catchments

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Josh Welty
and
Xubin Zeng

Snowmelt is an inherently complicated phenomenon, both in origin and implications. It is a vital resource in that large segments of society and the global economy depend upon seasonal snowmelt to bolster water availability for direct consumption, agriculture, and support for ecosystems ( Li et al. 2017 ; Qin et al. 2020 ). Conversely, it can pose a great threat to life and property when the melt process is exceedingly rapid and/or when it is exacerbated by concurrent precipitation and

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Yue Sun
and
Haishan Chen

the Eurasian snow can produce a crucial influence on the climate and has been regarded as an important predictor of short-term climate ( Cohen and Rind 1991 ; Wu and Kirtman 2007 ; Yim et al. 2010 ; Xu and Dirmeyer 2011 , 2013 ; Wu et al. 2014 ). It is found that spring snowmelt over Eurasia can induce soil moisture anomalies and produce delayed climatic effects through its hydrological effect, which can further affect summer monsoon, air temperature, and rainfall in the following summer

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Sebastian H. Mernild
and
Glen E. Liston

land surfaces are typically visibly homogeneous with a covering of ice and snow, and snow, respectively: high albedo and low amounts of absorbed solar radiation therefore provide small differences in energy partitioning between the marine and terrestrial surfaces ( Hansen et al. 2008 ). After terrestrial snowmelt in the spring, the land surface warms up, giving rise to a temperature gradient between the land and the still frozen sea. During daytime, cold and moist sea breezes affect the air

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Pablo F. Dornes
,
John W. Pomeroy
,
Alain Pietroniro
, and
Diana L. Verseghy

during the snow season due to internal feedback processes. Similarly, the Snow Model Intercomparison Project (SnowMIP) found a wide range of capabilities in simulating snow water equivalent (SWE) at a point during the accumulation and melt periods between the models ( Etchevers et al. 2004 ). Small-scale heterogeneity is especially important in arctic and subarctic mountain environments during the spring snowmelt season. Over the winter, snow is blown from areas of high wind exposure to sheltered

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Bei Xu
and
Gen Li

processes. For example, Halder and Dirmeyer (2017) suggested that the delayed hydrological impact of snow cover anomalies could lead to abnormal soil moisture, thereby inducing surface temperature and geopotential height anomalies through strong land–atmosphere interactions to affect the Indian summer monsoon rainfall. The numerical experiments showed that the snow cover albedo effect is found to be active before and during the snowmelt period. After the snow melts, the hydrological effect increases

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Holger Fritze
,
Iris T. Stewart
, and
Edzer Pebesma

comparatively narrow window of time during which runoff is generated for the year. In rain-dominated and mixed runoff regimes, the largest fraction of runoff comes during winter and early spring, closely following the precipitation pattern. For snowmelt-dominated basins, most of the winter precipitation is stored as snow in the higher elevations of the watershed and is released during spring and early summer. This spring snowmelt runoff pulse contributes up to 75% of total annual runoff for the snowmelt

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Jinwon Kim
,
Yu Gu
, and
K. N. Liou

static stability and vertical motions. Gueymard et al. (2000) also reported that dust originating from China has affected the surface insolation in the United States, and may have altered the regional circulation and water cycle. In a regional model study over East Asia, Giorgi et al. (2002) reported that anthropogenic sulfates can induce a negative radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) by as much as −15 W m −2 . The aerosol radiative forcing on spring snowmelt in the Sierra Nevada

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