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Kewei Lyu
,
Xuebin Zhang
,
John A. Church
, and
Quran Wu

1. Introduction More than 90% of the excess heat stored in the climate system from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is stored in the ocean, leading to global ocean thermal expansion and sea level rise ( Church et al. 2011 ; Rhein et al. 2013 ). The Southern Hemisphere (SH) oceans are one of the key regions in absorbing and storing the anthropogenic heat. For example, the oceans south of 30°S, while occupying only 30% of the global ocean surface area, account for 75% of ocean surface heat

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Everson D. Piva
,
Manoel A. Gan
, and
V. Brahmananda Rao

1. Introduction Even a cursory analysis of the geopotential height in the mid- and upper troposphere shows the presence of waves with wavelengths varying from planetary scale to mesoscale. These waves have a fundamental role in maintaining the heat, momentum, and moisture balance and might generate cyclones at the surface level. In general, the initial formation of surface cyclones or cyclogenesis in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) occurs between 35° and 55°S. The matured systems are found between

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Willem P. Sijp
and
Matthew H. England

; Seidov and Haupt 2002 ), and is thought to arise from net evaporation in the Atlantic ( Warren 1983 ) and the THC itself ( Manabe and Stouffer 1988 ). Exchange of thermocline water between basins is controlled by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), a mighty current that is strongly linked with the Southern Hemisphere (SH) subpolar westerly winds (SWWs). The location of the fronts at its northern boundary controls the warm, saline influence of Indian Ocean thermocline water resulting from the

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Lindsey N. Williams
,
Sukyoung Lee
, and
Seok-Woo Son

1. Introduction One peculiar feature in the atmosphere, which does not seem to have received much attention, is the fact that large-scale westerly jets, at times, take on a spiral form. An example of the spiral jet structure is shown in Fig. 1 , which displays the 275-hPa Southern Hemisphere (SH) zonal wind field, corresponding approximately to a 40-yr calendar mean of 27 April. A more precise description of the data and averaging procedure will be given in section 2 . Starting from the

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Xiaogu Zheng
and
Carsten S. Frederiksen

estimating, from monthly mean data, spatial patterns of the slow and intraseasonal components. This methodology provides a way to better identify and understand the sources of predictive skill as well as the sources of uncertainty in climate variability. By applying this methodology to reanalysis datasets, they successfully identified the potentially predictable and unpredictable patterns of the 500-hPa geopotential height field for the Northern Hemisphere ( Frederiksen and Zheng 2004 ) and the Southern

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Li Dong
,
Timothy J. Vogelsang
, and
Stephen J. Colucci

region such that blocking is suppressed during the warm phase of ENSO. In contrast to the Northern Hemisphere (NH), Renwick (1998) found that the number of days of blocking tends to increase on average during the warm phase of ENSO cycle, particularly over the southeast Pacific during the southern spring and summer, using a 16-yr record of 500-hPa height field data. This result is not only confirmed by the updated work of Renwick and Revell (1999) , using a 39-yr record of 500-hPa height dataset

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Qinghan Xu
and
Shuangyan Yang

 al. 2021a , b ; Gomes et al. 2021 ). Therefore, it is important to study the factors influencing weather and climate for the Southern Hemisphere (SH). Previous studies have shown that the mid-high-latitude intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) affects regional weather and climate ( Jiang and Lau 2008 ; Yang et al. 2013 ; Yang and Li 2017 ; Gao et al. 2018 ; Qi and Yang 2019 ; Yang et al. 2019 ). Intraseasonal variability at the SH is mainly located in the mid-high latitudes ( Mechoso et al. 1991

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Takafumi Miyasaka
and
Hisashi Nakamura

boundary currents and cool equatorward currents off the west coasts of the continents. The strong equatorward alongshore winds to the east of the anticyclones also contribute to the maintenance of underlying cool sea surface temperatures (SSTs) by enhancing surface evaporation, coastal upwelling, and entrainment at the bottom of the oceanic mixed layer. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH), as well, the summertime surface subtropical anticyclones are in a cell-type configuration (as shown below), suggesting

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Francis Codron

1. Introduction Quasi-annular patterns, often called annular modes, dominate atmospheric extratropical low-frequency variability ( Thompson and Wallace 1998 ). For both hemispheres, these modes are characterized by pressure anomalies of one sign over the polar region, surrounded by a band of opposing polarity with peak amplitude in the midlatitudes. They also appear as the favored response to a wide range of climate forcings, such as the observed trend in the Southern Hemisphere ( Thompson and

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Jian Rao
,
Chaim I. Garfinkel
,
Rongcai Ren
,
Tongwen Wu
, and
Yixiong Lu

1. Introduction The climatological stationary waves in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) winter are much weaker than that in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), due in large part to less zonal structure in the land–sea distribution in the SH ( James 1988 ; Rao and Ren 2020 ). It has been reported that wave forcing from the SH troposphere is too weak to exert significant influence on the strong SH stratospheric polar vortex, especially during the austral winter, before it begins to weaken through

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