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Ran Liu
,
Guihua Wang
,
Christopher Chapman
, and
Changlin Chen

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean, a key region influencing the ocean circulation, climate, biogeochemistry, and ocean productivity on large scales ( Marshall and Speer 2012 ; Talley 2013 ; Frölicher et al. 2015 ; Landschützer et al. 2015 ; Dawson et al. 2018 ; Rintoul 2018 ), is well-known for the strong Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and ubiquitous energetic mesoscale eddies. As the dominant dynamic feature of the Southern Hemisphere’s ocean circulation and the planet

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Stephanie M. Downes
,
Nathaniel L. Bindoff
, and
Stephen R. Rintoul

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean water masses play an important role in the global climate system by storing heat, freshwater, and dissolved gases and absorbing a large portion of the global anthropogenic CO 2 ( Sarmiento et al. 1998 ; Sabine et al. 1999 ). Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) make up the upper limb of the Southern Ocean’s thermohaline circulation and can extend as far as 30°N ( Drijfhout et al. 2005 ), ventilating the subtropical gyres and

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Kewei Lyu
,
Xuebin Zhang
,
John A. Church
,
Quran Wu
,
Russell Fiedler
, and
Fabio Boeira Dias

1. Introduction Driven by complicated interactions between the atmosphere, ocean and cryosphere, the Southern Ocean has strong influences on global climate, ocean circulation, heat and freshwater budgets, water mass formation, and biogeochemical cycle ( Rintoul 2018 ). The Southern Ocean has experienced rapid warming below the surface over the past decades ( Gille 2002 , 2008 ; Cai et al. 2010 ; Roemmich et al. 2015 ), accounting for a large part of the global ocean heat uptake and

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Kewei Lyu
,
Xuebin Zhang
,
John A. Church
, and
Quran Wu

1. Introduction More than 90% of the excess heat stored in the climate system from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is stored in the ocean, leading to global ocean thermal expansion and sea level rise ( Church et al. 2011 ; Rhein et al. 2013 ). The Southern Hemisphere (SH) oceans are one of the key regions in absorbing and storing the anthropogenic heat. For example, the oceans south of 30°S, while occupying only 30% of the global ocean surface area, account for 75% of ocean surface heat

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Yanzhou Wei
,
Sarah T. Gille
,
Matthew R. Mazloff
,
Veronica Tamsitt
,
Sebastiaan Swart
,
Dake Chen
, and
Louise Newman

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean serves as a gateway between the atmosphere and the middepth ocean, both because its steeply sloped isopycnals bring intermediate water to the ocean surface (e.g., Marshall and Speer 2012 ) and because winter mode water formation mixes recently ventilated water into the ocean interior (e.g., Hanawa and Talley 2001 ; Cerovečki et al. 2013 ). The region is responsible for much of the global ocean uptake of CO 2 ( Caldeira and Duffy 2000 ; Sabine et al. 2004

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Paul Spence
,
Oleg A. Saenko
,
Michael Eby
, and
Andrew J. Weaver

1. Introduction The upper-ocean meridional overturning circulation (MOC) can be thought of as consisting of two branches ( Gnanadesikan 1999 ). One is associated with deep-water formation in the northern North Atlantic where light waters are converted to dense waters. In the other branch, found in the Southern Ocean and in the low-latitude oceans, the reverse process takes place with dense water being converted back to light water. The two branches can influence each other in that, for example

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John C. Fyfe
,
Oleg A. Saenko
,
Kirsten Zickfeld
,
Michael Eby
, and
Andrew J. Weaver

1. Introduction The higher-than-expected warming of intermediate-level waters in the Southern Ocean in recent decades ( Gille 2002 ) has been reproduced in the latest series of global climate model simulations, which include time-varying changes in anthropogenic greenhouse gases, sulfate aerosols, and volcanic aerosols in the earth’s atmosphere ( Fyfe 2006 ). The agreement between observations and state-of-the-art global climate models suggests significant human influence on Southern Ocean

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Kevin M. Schmidt
,
Sebastiaan Swart
,
Chris Reason
, and
Sarah-Anne Nicholson

1. Introduction Mid- to high-latitude regions in the Southern Ocean are host to the strongest wind fields at the ocean surface. These strong winds (speeds > 20 m s −1 ; Yuan 2004 ) significantly impact upper-ocean properties and processes, such as mixed layer dynamics, Ekman processes, and air–sea exchange. Exchanges in heat, moisture, and momentum at the air–sea interface are facilitated by sea surface winds. In addition to driving physical processes at the sea surface, these winds also have

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Robert Hallberg
and
Anand Gnanadesikan

1. Introduction The water masses that compose the vast majority of the ocean volume are either formed, modified, or transit through the Southern Ocean ( Sverdrup et al. 1942 ; Schmitz 1996 ; Doney et al. 1998 ). It has long been known that mesoscale eddies play an important role in the dynamics of this region ( Johnson and Bryden 1989 ; Marshall et al. 1993 ; Killworth and Nanneh 1994 ; Marshall and Radko 2003 ). This paper explores how these eddies determine not only the magnitude and

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David K. Hutchinson
,
Andrew Mc C. Hogg
, and
Jeffrey R. Blundell

approximation becomes far less accurate because ocean surface velocities become comparable with wind velocities. Pacanowski (1987) pointed out that in equatorial regions, | u o | ∼ 1 m s −1 and | u a | ∼ 6 m s −1 , so that the use of τ 0 introduces errors in τ of up to 30%. However, in most parts of the ocean, including the Southern Ocean, wind speed is at least an order of magnitude larger than the ocean currents, thus the inclusion of u o in the wind stress parameterization is a second

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