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Jian Rao
,
Chaim I. Garfinkel
,
Rongcai Ren
,
Tongwen Wu
, and
Yixiong Lu

signals such as the 11-yr solar cycle and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Earlier studies found that high latitudes in the SH stratosphere are slightly warmer from late winter to spring, and the final warming occurs earlier, when the QBO is in the easterly phase (EQBO), and vice versa for the westerly phase (WQBO) ( Baldwin and Dunkerton 1998 ; Naito 2002 ; Gray et al. 2018 ; Yamashita et al. 2018 ; Anstey et al. 2021 ). Namely, seasonal westerly deceleration in the SH stratosphere in spring

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David A. Woolhiser

1. Introduction There have been many investigations of the relationships between coupled ocean–atmosphere systems such as the Southern Oscillation (SO) or El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and precipitation in the United States (cf. Caviedes 1975 , 1984 ; Yarnell and Diaz 1986 ; Andrade and Sellers 1988 ; Kiladis and Diaz 1989 ; Ropelewski and Halpert 1986 , 1989 ; Schonher and Nicholson 1989 ; Redmond and Koch 1991 ; Woolhiser 1992 ; Woolhiser et al. 1993 ). Although different

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Amy Clement
,
Pedro DiNezio
, and
Clara Deser

1. Introduction Sir Gilbert Walker’s work in the 1920s and 1930s revealed large-scale correlations in atmospheric surface pressure throughout the tropics and subtropics. He referred to a particular pattern in sea level pressure (SLP) changes as the Southern Oscillation (SO) by which “is implied the tendency of pressure at stations in the Pacific … and of rainfall in India and Java … to increase, while pressure in the region of the Indian Ocean decreases” ( Walker 1924 ). SLP in these regions is

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Xuan Ji
,
J. David Neelin
, and
C. Roberto Mechoso

1. Introduction El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is associated with sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies that have long been recognized to form an oscillation pattern with poles in the western equatorial and southeastern Pacific (e.g., Walker 1923 ; Berlage 1957 ; Wallace et al. 1998 ). ENSO is also associated with tropospheric temperature anomalies that spread from the central and eastern Pacific and that in many ways resemble basic equatorial wave dynamics ( Kiladis and Diaz 1989

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Andrew Roberts
,
John Guckenheimer
,
Esther Widiasih
,
Axel Timmermann
, and
Christopher K. R. T. Jones

-Temporal Pattern Formation , W. Nagata and N. S. Namachchivaya, Eds., Fields Institute Communications, Vol. 49, American Mathematical Society, 39–63 . Brøns , M. , T. J. Kaper , and H. G. Rotstein , 2008 : Introduction to focus issue: Mixed mode oscillations: Experiment, computation, and analysis. Chaos , 18 , 015101 , doi: 10.1063/1.2903177 . Chang , P. , B. Wang , T. Li , and L. Ji , 1994 : Interactions between the seasonal cycle and the southern oscillation—Frequency entrainment and

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David J. Stephens
,
Michael J. Meuleners
,
Harry van Loon
,
Malcolm H. Lamond
, and
Nicola P. Telcik

1. Introduction Recent theories and models of ENSO development have centered on equatorial ocean–atmosphere coupling as sole explanators of Southern Oscillation variability ( Latif et al. 1998 ; Fedorov and Philander 2000 ). However, the failure of operational forecasting models to predict the rapid development, intensity, and abrupt termination of the intense 1997/98 El Niño ( Anderson and Davey 1998 ; Trenberth 1998 ; Barnston et al. 1999 ; Landsea and Knaff 2000 ) challenged this

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Feiyang Wang
,
Lei Wang
,
Tanlong Dai
, and
Yuanyuan Han

Rossby wave trains propagating from the heating source to higher latitudes ( Garfinkel et al. 2012 , 2014 ; Seo and Son 2012 ; Garfinkel and Schwartz 2017 ). It is well established that convective and circulation anomalies associated with the MJO have important influences on the formation and tracks of tropical cyclones (e.g., Bessafi and Wheeler 2006 ; Aiyyer and Molinari 2008 ), El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO; e.g., Zhang et al. 2001 ; Hendon et al. 2007 ), the Arctic Oscillation (AO; L

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Thomas Toniazzo

1. Introduction The study of potential changes that occur in El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) when the mean climate conditions are changed can be of interest both for reconstructing paleoclimate conditions ( Rosenthal and Broccoli 2004 ) and for impact-oriented projections of future climate under continuing anthropogenic greenhouse warming (Houghton et al. 2001). Although the great majority of numerical GCMs produce an ENSO-like dominant mode of tropical Pacific interannual variability

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Xun Jiang
,
Jingqian Wang
,
Edward T. Olsen
,
Maochang Liang
,
Thomas S. Pagano
,
Luke L. Chen
,
Stephen J. Licata
, and
Yuk L. Yung

) signals in midtropospheric CO 2 ( Li et al. 2010 ; Jiang et al. 2012 ; Wang et al. 2011 ). Using midtropospheric CO 2 data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Jiang et al. (2010) found that El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) can influence midtropospheric CO 2 concentration as the result of a change in the Walker circulation ( Julian and Chervin 1978 ). Midtropospheric CO 2 is enhanced in the central Pacific Ocean and diminished in the western Pacific Ocean during El Niño ( Jiang et

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David A. Randall
,
Eli Tziperman
,
Mark D. Branson
,
Jadwiga H. Richter
, and
Wanying Kang

deficiencies of GCM-simulated clouds and gravity waves, and because none of the currently available GCMs can reproduce the observed link between the QBO and the MJO ( Lee and Klingaman 2018 ; Lim and Son 2020 ; Kim et al. 2020 ; Martin et al. 2021c ). El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) also affects the strength, propagation, and location of the MJO ( Tang and Yu 2008 ; Chen et al. 2015 ; Pang et al. 2016 ; Wang et al. 2018 ; Sun et al. 2019 ). During La Niña, the western Pacific MJO and the

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