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David A. Woolhiser

1. Introduction There have been many investigations of the relationships between coupled ocean–atmosphere systems such as the Southern Oscillation (SO) or El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and precipitation in the United States (cf. Caviedes 1975 , 1984 ; Yarnell and Diaz 1986 ; Andrade and Sellers 1988 ; Kiladis and Diaz 1989 ; Ropelewski and Halpert 1986 , 1989 ; Schonher and Nicholson 1989 ; Redmond and Koch 1991 ; Woolhiser 1992 ; Woolhiser et al. 1993 ). Although different

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Amy Clement, Pedro DiNezio, and Clara Deser

1. Introduction Sir Gilbert Walker’s work in the 1920s and 1930s revealed large-scale correlations in atmospheric surface pressure throughout the tropics and subtropics. He referred to a particular pattern in sea level pressure (SLP) changes as the Southern Oscillation (SO) by which “is implied the tendency of pressure at stations in the Pacific … and of rainfall in India and Java … to increase, while pressure in the region of the Indian Ocean decreases” ( Walker 1924 ). SLP in these regions is

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Andrew Roberts, John Guckenheimer, Esther Widiasih, Axel Timmermann, and Christopher K. R. T. Jones

-Temporal Pattern Formation , W. Nagata and N. S. Namachchivaya, Eds., Fields Institute Communications, Vol. 49, American Mathematical Society, 39–63 . Brøns , M. , T. J. Kaper , and H. G. Rotstein , 2008 : Introduction to focus issue: Mixed mode oscillations: Experiment, computation, and analysis. Chaos , 18 , 015101 , doi: 10.1063/1.2903177 . Chang , P. , B. Wang , T. Li , and L. Ji , 1994 : Interactions between the seasonal cycle and the southern oscillation—Frequency entrainment and

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Xuan Ji, J. David Neelin, and C. Roberto Mechoso

1. Introduction El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is associated with sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies that have long been recognized to form an oscillation pattern with poles in the western equatorial and southeastern Pacific (e.g., Walker 1923 ; Berlage 1957 ; Wallace et al. 1998 ). ENSO is also associated with tropospheric temperature anomalies that spread from the central and eastern Pacific and that in many ways resemble basic equatorial wave dynamics ( Kiladis and Diaz 1989

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David J. Stephens, Michael J. Meuleners, Harry van Loon, Malcolm H. Lamond, and Nicola P. Telcik

1. Introduction Recent theories and models of ENSO development have centered on equatorial ocean–atmosphere coupling as sole explanators of Southern Oscillation variability ( Latif et al. 1998 ; Fedorov and Philander 2000 ). However, the failure of operational forecasting models to predict the rapid development, intensity, and abrupt termination of the intense 1997/98 El Niño ( Anderson and Davey 1998 ; Trenberth 1998 ; Barnston et al. 1999 ; Landsea and Knaff 2000 ) challenged this

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Thomas Toniazzo

1. Introduction The study of potential changes that occur in El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) when the mean climate conditions are changed can be of interest both for reconstructing paleoclimate conditions ( Rosenthal and Broccoli 2004 ) and for impact-oriented projections of future climate under continuing anthropogenic greenhouse warming (Houghton et al. 2001). Although the great majority of numerical GCMs produce an ENSO-like dominant mode of tropical Pacific interannual variability

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Xun Jiang, Jingqian Wang, Edward T. Olsen, Maochang Liang, Thomas S. Pagano, Luke L. Chen, Stephen J. Licata, and Yuk L. Yung

) signals in midtropospheric CO 2 ( Li et al. 2010 ; Jiang et al. 2012 ; Wang et al. 2011 ). Using midtropospheric CO 2 data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Jiang et al. (2010) found that El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) can influence midtropospheric CO 2 concentration as the result of a change in the Walker circulation ( Julian and Chervin 1978 ). Midtropospheric CO 2 is enhanced in the central Pacific Ocean and diminished in the western Pacific Ocean during El Niño ( Jiang et

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Klaus Fraedrich

MAY 1988 KLAUS FRAEDRICH 1001El Nifio/Southern Oscillation Predictability KLAUS FRAEDRICHBureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia(Manuscript received 18 March 1987, in final form 28 October 1987)ABSTRACT Predictability time scales are estimated from annual time series of the E 1 Nifio/Southern Oscillation (ENSO).They are defined by the rate of divergence of initially close independent

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J. G. Sparrow and E. L. Unthank

592 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOLUME21Biennial Stratospheric Oscillations in the Sou~ern Hemisphere j. G. SPAI~OW AND E. L. U~T~X~X Physics Department, RAAF Academy, University of Melbourne, Australia (Manuscript recdved 26 May 1964, in revised form 27 July 1954) ABSTRACT Wind and temperature data from Australia, Hew Zealand, South Africa and Southern

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Chester F. Ropelewski and Michael S. Halpert

MAY 1996 ROPELEWSKI AND HALPERT 1043Quantifying Southern Oscillation-Precipitation RelationshipsCHESTER F. ROPELEWSKI AND MICHAEL S. HALPERTClimate Prediction Center, NCEP/NWS/NOAA, Washington, D.C.(Manuscript received 24 March 1995, in final form 3 October 1995)ABSTRACT A series of earlier studies has identified regions of the world in which precipitation appears to have a consistentrelationship

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