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Madeleine Pascolini-Campbell, Richard Seager, A. Park Williams, Benjamin I. Cook, and Ariane O. Pinson

1. Introduction There is a region of the interior southwestern United States (SWUS) that has two seasons of precipitation: one from the winter storm track and one from the North American summer monsoon (NAM). Subsequently, this region undergoes two periods of vegetation green-up in the early spring and summer ( Adams and Comrie 1997 ; Guirguis and Avissar 2008 ), with a dry season occurring throughout the intervening spring months when ecosystem productivity declines. This area is also

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Chad M. Shafer, Andrew E. Mercer, Lance M. Leslie, Michael B. Richman, and Charles A. Doswell III

the transition seasons of spring and fall than during the summer ( JD92 ). It is not surprising that the highest-ranked TOs in S09 and M09 occurred during the spring, when the collocation of favorable instability and wind shear is more common. During the summer, when wind profiles are generally less conducive for midlevel mesocyclone development, PNO occurrence is frequent relative to TO occurrence, perhaps owing in part to commonly unfavorably high LCLs for widespread tornado development

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Mark R. Jury and David M. Sanchez

subtropical Rossby waves are seen to travel ∼1000 km day −1 through the Caribbean but the tropical moisture pulses move across the tropical Atlantic and northern Amazon at half the speed in the opposite direction. Given the persistent progression of the moisture pulse, an advance warning of Caribbean springtime flood events is possible (cf. Figs. 7a–c ). 4. Conclusions Daily rainfall time series for 60 stations over Puerto Rico were used to analyze spring season flood events during the period 1979

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Mxolisi E. Shongwe, Christopher A. T. Ferro, Caio A. S. Coelho, and Geert Jan van Oldenborgh

predictability of cold spring seasons in Europe. We investigate the hypothesis of snow accumulated during the preceding winter being a source of skill in predicting cold spring seasons in Europe. Snow increases the surface albedo, thereby altering the terrestrial heat balance and providing a positive feedback mechanism that modulates atmospheric variability. In the first part of the paper, we assess the coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) below-median, lower-, and upper-quintile (i.e., coldest and

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Xiaoyu Long and Walter A. Robinson

variability within each season. Seasonal transitions are, however, of equal if not greater significance than the mean climate especially in polar regions. The seasonal transition, especially from winter to spring, has great importance for human activities and for biological systems, as suggested by numerous phenological studies ( Cayan et al. 2001 ; Høye et al. 2007 ; Linderholm 2006 ). The strength of the seasonal cycle is greater in the Arctic than in any other region of the globe ( Fig. 1a ). In part

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Lukas Brunner, Gabriele C. Hegerl, and Andrea K. Steiner

anomalously cold conditions in winter to blocking being linked to warm conditions in summer has shifted by a few days because of climate warming. Here we investigate the link between atmospheric blocking and European cold and warm spells during spring to provide better insight into the shifting role of blocking for extremes during this transition period. Spring temperature extremes are of special relevance because vegetation during this season is particularly vulnerable to abnormal temperatures. Late

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Jia He and Robert X. Black

1. Introduction Research within various scientific disciplines share a common interest in the study of high-latitude spring onset because of its impact on ecosystem productivity ( Linderholm 2006 ). From a phenological perspective, spring onset, or the onset of the growing season, is identified in terms of local phenomena such as flowering ( Asa et al. 2004 ; D’Odorico et al. 2002 ) or bug burst ( D’Odorico et al. 2002 ). The phenological onset of the growing season exhibits strong temporal

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J. Barbier, F. Guichard, D. Bouniol, F. Couvreux, and R. Roehrig

areas indicate heat waves that are shared by both HWmax and HWmin, cover an area of at least 20% of the Sahelian domain and last at least 3 days. From a seasonal point of view, the further into the season, the shorter and the less frequent the heat waves become ( Figs. 2 and 3a,b ). This result is consistent for both heat wave types, but slightly more pronounced for HWmin during the end of spring, in June and July. There is on average less than one HWmin every five years in these two months

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Paul Fox-Hughes

other hand, the season of peak fire weather in Tasmania has commonly been regarded as late summer into autumn ( Luke and McArthur 1978 , p. 15). Among fire managers and meteorologists, however, there has been discussion of a springtime “bump,” or early season peak in fire danger, subsiding before the primary seasonal peak occurred some months later. This springtime bump has been documented ( Fox-Hughes 2008 ) as occurring in October or November, roughly one year in two. Over much of Australia, fire

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Fisseha Berhane, Benjamin Zaitchik, and Hamada S. Badr

; Janicot et al. 2009 ; Lavender and Matthews 2009 ; Mohino et al. 2012 ), all but one ( Gu 2009 ) have focused exclusively on boreal summer. The findings of Gu (2009) , however, show that region-wide anomalies in convection and precipitation occur during the passage of intraseasonal convective signals associated with the MJO, suggesting that further study of MJO influence during spring is warranted. The spring rainy season accounts for up to 45% of annual precipitation in portions of EWA and is a

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