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Aditi Sheshadri, R. Alan Plumb, and Edwin P. Gerber

of Northern Hemisphere stratospheric final warming events . J. Atmos. Sci. , 64 , 2932 – 2946 , doi: 10.1175/JAS3981.1 . Black , R. X. , and B. A. McDaniel , 2007b : Interannual variability in the Southern Hemisphere circulation organized by stratospheric final warming events . J. Atmos. Sci. , 64 , 2968 – 2974 , doi: 10.1175/JAS3979.1 . Black , R. X. , B. A. McDaniel , and W. A. Robinson , 2006 : Stratosphere–troposphere coupling during spring onset . J. Climate , 19

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Chen Wei, Oliver Bühler, and Esteban G. Tabak

; therefore, the wave structure in the troposphere cannot be approximated well using upward-propagating waves alone. Conversely, solving for the wave field using the simplified approach in the presence of back-reflection at the tropopause leads to unphysical incoming internal waves in the upper atmosphere, which clearly do no satisfy the radiation condition there. The key factor is to enforce the proper radiation condition in the upper atmosphere as well as the kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions at

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Isla R. Simpson, Michael Blackburn, and Joanna D. Haigh

coordinate. Triangular truncation at wavenumber 42 is used and there are 15 levels between the surface and σ = 0.0185. Unlike some sGCMs used to investigate stratosphere–troposphere coupling, the model intentionally does not include a fully resolved stratosphere and does not exhibit a stratospheric polar vortex. The mean state is maintained by Newtonian relaxation of temperature toward a zonally symmetric equilibrium state. In the original configuration used in HBD05 and SBH09 , this relaxation

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Joowan Kim and Seok-Woo Son

1. Introduction In the tropics, the thermal boundary between the stratosphere and troposphere is well defined by the coldest level, the so-called cold-point tropopause (CPT). Thermal characteristics of the CPT have been extensively examined as they play a crucial role in stratosphere–troposphere coupling and exchange ( Holton et al. 1995 ). For instance, transport of water vapor from the troposphere to the stratosphere is to a great extent controlled by temperature at the CPT. Because the air

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Francesco d’Ovidio, Emily Shuckburgh, and Bernard Legras

1. Introduction It is now well established that the distribution of tracers in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere (UTLS) strongly depends on the transport and mixing properties of the flow. It is also well established that the dominant isentropic motion induces a chaotic type of tracer advection, giving rise to strongly inhomogeneous stirring (and thus, in the presence of diffusion, inhomogeneous mixing). 1 This segregates tracers into distinct well-mixed reservoirs separated by

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William J. M. Seviour, Steven C. Hardiman, Lesley J. Gray, Neal Butchart, Craig MacLachlan, and Adam A. Scaife

coupling of the stratosphere to the troposphere ( Black and McDaniel 2007 ). The predictability of these events was investigated in GloSea5, but not found to be highly significant. This is probably because the mean timing of the final warming is toward the end of the 4-month hindcast simulation (around 20 November at 10 hPa), and the final warming does not occur before the end of the hindcast for some ensemble members, thereby introducing a bias in the mean. b. Ozone depletion GloSea5 does not include

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C. Schnadt Poberaj, J. Staehelin, and D. Brunner

propagate into the middle atmosphere ( Charney and Drazin 1961 ). c. Coupling to tropospheric dynamics In the troposphere, there is a rich spectrum of extratropical waves at the synoptic and planetary scale. In the SH, the absence of mountain chains locking the phase of planetary waves implies that atmospheric variability is mostly accounted for by transient (traveling) waves ( James 1994 ), and that stationary wave amplitudes are much smaller than their northern counterparts ( van Loon and Jenne 1972

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Murry L. Salby and Patrick F. Callaghan

1. Introduction In the tropical stratosphere, the circulation is dominated by the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of equatorial wind. In the tropical troposphere, it is characterized by the Hadley circulation, which is forced by convection and the release of latent heat. Historically, these two circulations have been regarded as independent. In the classical theory of the QBO, the stratospheric circulation depends upon the tropospheric circulation only indirectly, through vertically

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Diane J. Ivy, Susan Solomon, and David W. J. Thompson

1. Introduction The apparent propagation of some polar circulation anomalies from the stratosphere to the troposphere during winter and spring has been noted for about a half-century ( Julian and Labitzke 1965 ; Quiroz 1977 ), and has been the subject of intense study since it was shown to be robust in composite analyses by Baldwin and Dunkerton (2001) . Stratosphere–troposphere dynamical coupling was first observed in the Arctic on a seasonal basis in winter, where circulation anomalies in

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Masakazu Taguchi

, 489 pp . Baldwin , M. P. , and T. J. Dunkerton , 1999 : Propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere . J. Geophys. Res. , 104 , 30 937 – 30 946 , doi: 10.1029/1999JD900445 . Baldwin , M. P. , and T. J. Dunkerton , 2001 : Stratospheric harbingers of anomalous weather regimes . Science , 294 , 581 – 584 , doi: 10.1126/science.1063315 . Baldwin , M. P. , and D. W. J. Thompson , 2009 : A critical comparison of stratosphere–troposphere coupling

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