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Zhijin Li
,
Yi Chao
, and
James C. McWilliams

1. Introduction Streamfunction and velocity potential are used extensively in meteorology and oceanography. In low latitudes, geostrophic balance breaks down as the Coriolis parameter becomes small, and streamfunction and velocity potential are more suitable scalar variables for depicting flow patterns than other variables, such as pressure and geopotential heights, that are more suitable for large-scale flow patterns in middle latitudes (e.g., Palmer 1952 ). Streamfunction and velocity

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Jeremy P. Grist
,
Robert Marsh
, and
Simon A. Josey

freshwater and (ii) diapycnal mixing. The latter process comprises a wide range of phenomena, including small-scale diffusive mixing, the breaking of internal waves, entrainment in the vicinity of overflows, and the seasonal cycle of thermocline water entrainment into the surface mixed layer. If the MOC streamfunction is plotted in density space, there is a clear link to water mass transformation due to surface forcing and mixing ( Marsh et al. 2000 ). In spite of the ubiquitous mixing, water mass

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Joanna Slawinska
,
Olivier Pauluis
,
Andrew J. Majda
, and
Wojciech W. Grabowski

temperature of the air parcels. They used this procedure to study convective mass transport in high-resolution simulations of radiative–convective equilibrium. In PM , convective overturning is quantified in terms of an isentropic streamfunction, which is obtained as a domain integral, and thus it includes all scales of motion. The primary aim of the present study is to extend PM ’s framework to separate the contributions of individual atmospheric scales. This extended framework is then used to analyze

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Y. L. Firing
,
T. K. Chereskin
,
D. R. Watts
,
K. L. Tracey
, and
C. Provost

property profiles indexed by acoustic travel time between the surface and a preselected reference depth, known as a gravest empirical mode (GEM) table ( Meinen and Watts 2000 ; Watts et al. 2001b ), was constructed from nearly 600 CTD and Argo profiles in the cDrake region ( Cutting 2010 ) and provides the ability to convert travel time to hydrographic profiles. Here, we explain the method for computing geostrophic baroclinic streamfunction from the bottom-to-surface round-trip acoustic travel time

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Lei Han
and
Rui Xin Huang

1. Introduction The oceanic general circulation is a complex dynamic system in the three-dimensional space. To gain physical insight, some two-dimensional-section views have been widely used. For example, the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) in the ocean has been explored for a long history (e.g., Siedler et al. 2013 ); in particular, the corresponding streamfunction has been used as a tool to visualize and quantify the MOC. The common practice in defining the MOC streamfunction is as

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Robert Davies-Jones

1824 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 116NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE On the Formulation of Surface Geostrophic Streamfunction ROBERT DAVIES-JONES National Severe Storms Laboratory/NOAA, Norman, Oklahoma 22 February 1988 ABSTRACT The flat-ground pressure field of Pielke and Cram and the surface geostrophic streamfunction of Sangster

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Mei-Man Lee
and
A. J. George Nurser

layer and negative for downward subduction out of the mixed layer. We define the net subduction streamfunction to be the time-mean subduction of water with temperature colder than θ , where the overbar indicates the time average and θ b ( x , y , t ) is the temperature at the base of the mixed layer. The phrase “net” is to indicate that the time averaging is taken after the areal integral and “streamfunction” is used because the net subduction of fluid with temperature between θ and θ + Δ θ

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R. Benzi
,
E. Salusti
, and
A. Sutera

for the Middle Atlantic Bight. J. Limnol. Oceanogr., 21, 563-571.Worthington, L. V., 1976. On the North Atlantic Circulation. J. Hopkins Oceanogr. Stud., Vol. 6, J. Hopkins University Press, 110 pp. Variational Approach to Gravity Waves in Terms of Streamfunction1 R. BENZI 1. F.A.-C.N.R., Roma, Italy E. SALUSTI lNFN-lstituto Fisica. Universit~ di Roma, Roma, Italy A. SUTERA2 lstituto Fisica, Universith

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J. Nycander
,
J. Nilsson
,
K. Döös
, and
G. Broström

has been recognized for a long time in the field of nonlinear dynamics ( Lichtenberg and Lieberman 1983 ), and similar features were also seen in a recent study of the chaotic nature of particle trajectories in a three-dimensional ocean model ( Nycander et al. 2002) . We here propose a novel way of analyzing the energetics and thermodynamics of the ocean circulation: by computing the streamfunction in depth–density coordinates. This can be done by computing the vertical transport across levels of

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Yueng-Djern Lenn
,
Teresa K. Chereskin
, and
Janet Sprintall

, because there is a paucity of direct observations compared to other parts of the World Ocean. Here we show how directly observed surface layer velocities, sampled with high lateral resolution but nonuniform frequency over a period of 5 yr, may be combined with altimetric sea level anomalies to produce a highly resolved improved estimate of the mean surface layer currents in Drake Passage. A streamfunction is objectively mapped from the improved mean currents and used to validate two independent

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