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Toshichika Iizumi, Motoki Nishimori, and Masayuki Yokozawa

-century climate condition and the climate model outputs for daily mean temperature averaged over July and August (summer temperature) and daily total insolation averaged over May–October (warm-season insolation). We then quantified the ranges of biases in summer temperature and warm-season insolation that could give simulated regional paddy rice yields with a bias within ±2.5% of the 20-yr mean observed regional yield. Precipitation bias was not examined in this study because irrigated paddy rice is not

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Jiaolan Fu, Fuqing Zhang, and Timothy D. Hewson

frontal influence area, requiring a separation of >200 km from either side of the front. One might argue that the cold side of a front is not the warm sector; however, the region of study, in the summer season, ordinarily lies in extensive warm-sector conditions well south of a primary cold front typically found north of China. More localized fronts can be found within this broad warm sector, and the rainbands connected to these are directly excluded with this double-sided condition. Based on our WSR

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Natalia Zazulie, Matilde Rusticucci, and Susan Solomon

(PDFs) for daily summer [December–February (DJF)] temperatures at Orcadas over each 20-yr period since 1903/04. The zero-degree line is marked in the figure to highlight the large observed increase in the number of days of ice melt. Although the shape of the distribution has been nearly constant in this season, the mean temperatures have systematically shifted in recent decades, producing a large change in the frequency of occurrence of cold and warm extremes. For example, the figure shows that

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Jason T. Ortegren, Paul A. Knapp, Justin T. Maxwell, William P. Tyminski, and Peter T. Soulé

) conditions, but this relationship is nonstationary both temporally and spatially ( McCabe et al. 2004 ; Seager et al. 2009 ). Short-term (i.e., interannual) summer half-year drought variability is the result of internal atmospheric behavior, with no significant influence from the tropical Pacific ( Seager et al. 2009 ). Moreover, they conclude that summer half-year drought conditions are essentially unpredictable ( Seager et al. 2009 ). However, low-frequency warm-season drought patterns in the

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Matteo Zampieri, Fabio D’Andrea, Robert Vautard, Philippe Ciais, Nathalie de Noblet-Ducoudré, and Pascal Yiou

1. Introduction The unprecedented heat wave witnessed during the summer of 2003 reached an amplitude of five standard deviations in some areas of Europe, according to the current surface temperature climatology. It triggered considerable concern in Europe because it was suggested to be a possible premonitory picture of a warmer European summer climate to come at the second half of the twenty-first century ( Schär et al. 2004 ; Beniston 2004 ). Heat waves have been studied for a long time (e

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Paul Butke and Scott C. Sheridan

is classified as a Dfa (humid continental) climate, with significant modification by Lake Erie evident in all seasons. Based on the 1971–2000 normal period, its annual mean temperature is 9.8°C; the mean summer (June–August) temperature is 21.0°C, with maximum temperatures on 9 days above 32°C (90°F); the mean winter (December–February) temperature is −2.0°C, with minimum temperatures on 120 days below 0°C (32°F). During the period of study, the mean temperature was slightly warmer than normal in

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Elizabeth Carter, Dimitris A. Herrera, and Scott Steinschneider

1. Introduction Precipitation in the Midwestern United States is the primary source of water for 70 million people across the Mississippi Basin and the Laurentian Great Lakes, and it supplies water for $80 billion worth of agricultural products annually ( Hatfield and Takle 2014 ). The majority of precipitation in the Midwestern United States falls during the spring and summer (March–September). As such, anomalous warm-season precipitation in the region has major social, environmental, and

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Adam H. Sobel and Suzana J. Camargo

all suggests the following view of the chain of cause and effect, of which the tropical changes described above form several links but not the initiating ones. In a warming climate, during the near-solsticial seasons when the Hadley cells are strongest and the intertropical convergence zones are farthest from the equator, the winter Hadley cell expands, while both the winter and summer cells weaken. The explanation for these changes is almost certain to involve extratropical eddies in a central

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Huaqiong Cheng, Tongwen Wu, and Wenjie Dong

progression of the seasons. Substantial differences in land–sea distribution between India, East Asia, and Southeast Asia leads to a great discrepancy in the land–sea thermal regime that are responsible for the differences in the summer monsoon over separate regions. It has been recognized that solar heating forms the land–sea heat contrast between the Eurasian continent and the Indian Ocean, and triggers the Indian summer monsoon onset ( Yanai et al. 1992 ; Ueda and Yasunari 1998 ; Minoura et al. 2003

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Chun Li, Lixin Wu, and Ping Chang

ENSO. It is also noted that some negative rainfall anomalies exists in the Yangtze River valley, which are likely attributed to warm SST anomalies in the western tropical Pacific ( Huang and Sun 1992 ). Fig . 4. As in Fig. 2 , but for the SVD2 of SST and rainfall, with ENSO signals are statistically eliminated by subtracting the linear regressions against the Niño-3 SST index averaged over 5°S–5°N, 150°–90°W in spring (MAM). To further demonstrate the covariability between the summer rainfall over

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