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Roland J. Viger, Lauren E. Hay, Steven L. Markstrom, John W. Jones, and Gary R. Buell

accounts for large numbers of small water bodies and is valuable for applications in basins where surface depressions are too small or numerous to conveniently model as discrete spatial units but where the aggregated storage capacity of these units is large enough to have a substantial effect on streamflow. A brief overview of the model configuration is given in the next section. The reader is referred to Viger et al. ( Viger et al. 2010 ) and Hay et al. ( Hay et al. 2011 ) for further details on PRMS

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Guo-Yue Niu and Zong-Liang Yang

temperatures below 0°C, by applying the freezing-point depression equation. Some of the models ( Flerchinger and Saxton 1989 ; Cox et al. 1999 ; Hansson et al. 2004 ) assume that the freezing–thawing process is similar to the drying–wetting process with regard to the dependence of the soil matric potential on the liquid water content. This assumption leads to a very low infiltration rate or even upward water movements resulting in ice heave in surface layers ( Hansson et al. 2004 ). Spaans and Baker

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Christopher Spence and Wayne R. Rouse

the summer of 1999 and the snowmelt of 2000 replenished some of the water lost, but over the entire study period there was a net soil moisture loss of 73 mm. In 1999, snow meltwater flooded into the bedrock depressions because there was little available soil storage at the site after a wet autumn in 1998. Despite a similar volume of snowmelt in 2000 ( Fig. 4 ), much of the water went to replenishing soil moisture storage ( Fig. 3b ), reducing the fraction of snow meltwater that ran off from 0

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H. FICKER

as a hundred-been a joy to the late Prof. Langley, who used to tell the writer that in lis observations on Mount mhitne andscale ti meter long in a minute of time.thousandth of a degree. # hese conditions would haveat Lone Pine the galvanometer spot would drift o I of a. STRUCTURE OF COMPOUND DEPRESSIONS.By H. FICKER.[Reprinted from Sclme A hstracts, Oct. 31, 1921.1The pressure changes n t the earths surface during tlie piisstige of n depression are only partly accounted for by the spreading of

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Timothy J. Lang and Ana P. Barros

, Potty et al. (2000) reported on a modeling study of four monsoon depressions, one of which traveled almost due north over central India. ECMWF analyses from the years 1997–2001 suggest that northwestward propagation is not at all unusual, at any point in the monsoon season. Thus, the motion of the 1999 and 2000 depressions is not unique, but their motion along with their increasing convective organization are very interesting. When the 2000 depression formed, the eastern edge of the surface monsoon

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Vinodkumar, A. Chandrasekar, K. Alapaty, and Dev Niyogi

; Singh and Pal 2003 ; Roy Bhowmik 2003 ; Vaidya et al. 2003 ; Mukhopadhyay et al. 2004 ; Sandeep et al. 2006 ; Xavier et al. 2006 ). The chief objective of this study is to investigate the effect of assimilating surface data and atmospheric soundings from satellite datasets using FASDAS combined with FDDA on the simulation of the structure and spatial distribution of the precipitation of a monsoon depression that formed during the 1999 Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment (BOBMEX) campaign field

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A. Artegiani, E. Paschini, A. Russo, D. Bregant, F. Raicich, and N. Pinardi

rather in its annual cycle, which turns out to be almost insensitive to D greater than 50 m and less than 150 m. The relative heat storage is shown in Fig. 3 . Two extreme seasons can be clearly distinguished, namely, winter from January to April, and summer from July to October. We can also define the two transition seasons: spring, consisting of May and June, and autumn, consisting of November and December. The relationship between the heat storage and total surface heat flux Q can be written

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Y. Ramanathan

very disturbed conditions forced by the depression. Surfaceobservations show overcast sky conditions with cu,fs and cb clouds, moderate to heavy rain andshowers, and falling surface pressures. The available observations were checked for consistency withthe neighboring land observations. A few missedobservations were interpolated from analysis.Computations in Appendix B were made for eightobservations at 6 h intervals from 0000 GMT 18August and QR values were computed from oncedaily USSR

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Harold J. Edmon Jr. and Dayton G. Vincent

at tropical storm strength. It has a centralpressure of 1002 mb and is located near Waco, Tex.In addition, a short-wave trough in the 500 mb flow isdeveloping over Montana and Idaho. A stationaryfront at the surface extends from a low'pressure centerover Toronto, southward to a weaker low pressurecenter over Pueblo, Calif. During the period of interest (0000-1200 GMT 25June 1968) the tropical depression tracks northeastward from-Tulsa, Okla., to Springfield, Ill. The surfaceand 500 mb maps for

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Michael T. Coe

, which includes the transport of water across the land surface and temporary storage of water in lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands. The seasonal cycle of river discharge is a function of the time it takes runoff, generated locally, to traverse the lakes, wetlands, and streams on the way to the oceans or closed interior drainage basins. For example, Hagemann and Dümenil (1996) show that a continental-scale river transport model with no representation of the Great Lakes is inadequate for simulating the

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