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Masanori Konda, Hiroshi Ichikawa, Hiroyuki Tomita, and Meghan F. Cronin

north–south contrast of the ocean surface structure can affect the modification of the air mass through changes in the exchange of heat, moisture, and momentum. The large heat flux in the KE region is correlated with the basin-scale air–sea coupling systems such as the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) and other subsequent modes ( Mantua et al. 1997 ; Bond et al. 2003 ; Kwon and Deser 2007 ; Di Lorenzo et al. 2008 ). Previous studies have pointed out that the atmospheric circulation field

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Sen Li, Zhong Zhong, Weidong Guo, and Wei Lu

–Obukhov similarity theory (MOST). It is well known that the BREB, which estimates surface heat fluxes on the basis of measurements of temperature and specific humidity gradients and surface energy budget, becomes computationally unstable and results in spurious large values when the Bowen ratio is in the vicinity of −1. Meanwhile, many attempts have been made to develop and improve the profile method. Some flux-profile relationships suitable for various conditions of atmospheric stability have been well

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Maithili Sharan and Piyush Srivastava

1. Introduction Monin and Obukhov similarity (MOS) theory ( Monin and Obukhov 1954 ) is widely used to estimate the stability parameter (= z / L , where z is the height above the ground, and L is the Obukhov length) and surface fluxes in atmospheric models for weather forecasting as well as for air quality and climate modeling ( Arya 1988 ; Beljaars and Holtslag 1991 ; Garratt 1994 ; Oleson et al. 2008 ; Skamarock et al. 2008 ; Jimenez et al. 2012 ; Giorgi et al. 2012 ; Pielke 2013

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Gang Liu, Yangang Liu, and Satoshi Endo

1. Introduction Surface momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat fluxes are critical for atmospheric processes such as clouds and precipitation, and are often parameterized in a variety of models due to limited grid resolution in these models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ) and general circulation models (GCMs). In numerical models, these turbulent flux parameterizations are collectively referred to as the surface flux parameterization (SFP

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Chin-Hsuan Peng and Chun-Chieh Wu

Schubert 2009 ) and leading to the apparent import of absolute angular momentum under continuous diabatic heating inside the RMW (e.g., Smith and Montgomery 2015 ), which is favorable for further intensification of the vortex. As for the energy source of TC intensification, Riehl (1950) highlighted that sea surface heat fluxes play a crucial role in TC development. This concept was formally proposed in the context of the wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE) mechanism ( Emanuel 1986 , 1989

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David A. Rutan, Seiji Kato, David R. Doelling, Fred G. Rose, Le Trang Nguyen, Thomas E. Caldwell, and Norman G. Loeb

more complex than at the TOA, as it requires a radiative transfer model and satellite-derived properties of clouds and aerosols and atmospheric state from either satellites or reanalysis. Underlying assumptions in the radiative transfer model calculations and ancillary input data error increases the uncertainty in the surface radiation budget estimates. Furthermore, it is known that the diurnal cycle of clouds and their contribution to the diurnal cycle of surface radiant flux must be taken into

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Lisan Yu, Xiangze Jin, and Robert A. Weller

influence on the annual cycle of SST. His finding also suggested that a shallow thermocline does not necessarily facilitate cooling of the mixed layer; instead, it can foster a warming of the sea surface. The fact that the SST increase is associated with a shallow thermocline indicates that the major contributor to the surface mixed layer heat budget is not the vertical flux of heat through the thermocline but the net surface heat flux through the air–sea interface (i.e., the combination of net

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L. Mahrt and Tihomir Hristov

1. Introduction The literature has largely excluded measurements of small values of the air–sea temperature difference for prediction of the surface heat flux because of suspected important observational errors and perceived ill-defined behavior in the relationship between the surface heat flux and small values of the air–sea temperature difference. Exceptions include Smedman et al. (2007) , who were able to determine the air–sea temperature difference down to small values on the order of 0

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Axel Andersson, Christian Klepp, Karsten Fennig, Stephan Bakan, Hartmut Grassl, and Jörg Schulz

global water cycle datasets from retrievals of relevant ocean and atmospheric parameters such as sea surface temperature, winds, air humidity, and precipitation. Such datasets are provided with a better spatiotemporal sampling in comparison with in situ observations. The microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum is ideally suited to retrieve precipitation and parameters useful to estimate latent heat flux and evaporation using a parameterization. At low microwave frequencies the emitted

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Jackie C. May, Clark Rowley, and Neil Van de Voorde

1. Introduction Accurate representation of surface heat fluxes at the air–sea interface is an important aspect of atmospheric, oceanic, and coupled air–sea forecast modeling. The total ocean surface heat exchange is determined by the solar radiative flux, longwave radiative flux, latent heat flux (LHF), and sensible heat flux (SHF). These fluxes strongly influence the ocean mixed layer and sonic-layer depths as well as the stability and convection in the atmospheric boundary layer. Modeling for

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