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Sen Li, Zhong Zhong, Weidong Guo, and Wei Lu

–Obukhov similarity theory (MOST). It is well known that the BREB, which estimates surface heat fluxes on the basis of measurements of temperature and specific humidity gradients and surface energy budget, becomes computationally unstable and results in spurious large values when the Bowen ratio is in the vicinity of −1. Meanwhile, many attempts have been made to develop and improve the profile method. Some flux-profile relationships suitable for various conditions of atmospheric stability have been well

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Maithili Sharan and Piyush Srivastava

1. Introduction Monin and Obukhov similarity (MOS) theory ( Monin and Obukhov 1954 ) is widely used to estimate the stability parameter (= z / L , where z is the height above the ground, and L is the Obukhov length) and surface fluxes in atmospheric models for weather forecasting as well as for air quality and climate modeling ( Arya 1988 ; Beljaars and Holtslag 1991 ; Garratt 1994 ; Oleson et al. 2008 ; Skamarock et al. 2008 ; Jimenez et al. 2012 ; Giorgi et al. 2012 ; Pielke 2013

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Chin-Hsuan Peng and Chun-Chieh Wu

Schubert 2009 ) and leading to the apparent import of absolute angular momentum under continuous diabatic heating inside the RMW (e.g., Smith and Montgomery 2015 ), which is favorable for further intensification of the vortex. As for the energy source of TC intensification, Riehl (1950) highlighted that sea surface heat fluxes play a crucial role in TC development. This concept was formally proposed in the context of the wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE) mechanism ( Emanuel 1986 , 1989

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Masanori Konda, Hiroshi Ichikawa, Hiroyuki Tomita, and Meghan F. Cronin

north–south contrast of the ocean surface structure can affect the modification of the air mass through changes in the exchange of heat, moisture, and momentum. The large heat flux in the KE region is correlated with the basin-scale air–sea coupling systems such as the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) and other subsequent modes ( Mantua et al. 1997 ; Bond et al. 2003 ; Kwon and Deser 2007 ; Di Lorenzo et al. 2008 ). Previous studies have pointed out that the atmospheric circulation field

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Gang Liu, Yangang Liu, and Satoshi Endo

1. Introduction Surface momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat fluxes are critical for atmospheric processes such as clouds and precipitation, and are often parameterized in a variety of models due to limited grid resolution in these models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ) and general circulation models (GCMs). In numerical models, these turbulent flux parameterizations are collectively referred to as the surface flux parameterization (SFP

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L. Mahrt and Tihomir Hristov

1. Introduction The literature has largely excluded measurements of small values of the air–sea temperature difference for prediction of the surface heat flux because of suspected important observational errors and perceived ill-defined behavior in the relationship between the surface heat flux and small values of the air–sea temperature difference. Exceptions include Smedman et al. (2007) , who were able to determine the air–sea temperature difference down to small values on the order of 0

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Lisan Yu, Xiangze Jin, and Robert A. Weller

influence on the annual cycle of SST. His finding also suggested that a shallow thermocline does not necessarily facilitate cooling of the mixed layer; instead, it can foster a warming of the sea surface. The fact that the SST increase is associated with a shallow thermocline indicates that the major contributor to the surface mixed layer heat budget is not the vertical flux of heat through the thermocline but the net surface heat flux through the air–sea interface (i.e., the combination of net

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Piyush Srivastava and Maithili Sharan

1. Introduction A major source of uncertainty in the predictive capability of the atmospheric models is associated with the inadequate parameterization of turbulent fluxes in the models. Almost all the numerical models of atmosphere utilize the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory (MOST; Monin and Obukhov 1954 ) for parameterization of surface fluxes ( Stull 1988 ). The bulk algorithm for parameterization of surface fluxes based on MOST requires wind, temperature, and humidity measurements at two

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Heping Liu, Qianyu Zhang, and Gordon Dowler

albedos (e.g., about 0.06 for open water and 0.08 for vegetated lands) ( Henderson-Sellers 1986 ; Bonan 1995 ). It is known that sensible heat flux H is primarily determined by the air temperature difference between the water surface and the overlying atmosphere as well as the turbulent exchange coefficient. Latent heat flux λE is dependent upon vapor pressure differences between the water–atmosphere interface and the overlying atmosphere as well as the turbulent mixing intensity ( Henderson

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Li-Zhi Shen, Chun-Chieh Wu, and Falko Judt

1. Introduction Intensity and size are the two main characteristics used to describe the damage potential of tropical cyclones (TCs; Marks et al. 1998 ; Wang and Wu 2004 ; Cheng and Wu 2018 , 2020 ). The energy source of TCs is surface heat fluxes ( Riehl 1950 ; Zhang and Emanuel 2016 ), an idea that was cast into a theory called the wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE) mechanism ( Emanuel 1986 , 1989 ), which highlights the positive feedback between surface heat fluxes and storm

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