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David M. Gaffin and Stephen S. Parker

mid-Atlantic region. Wea. Forecasting , 6 , 437 – 455 . 10.1175/1520-0434(1991)006<0437:STAFFP>2.0.CO;2 Johns, R. H. , 1982 : A synoptic climatology of northwest flow severe weather outbreaks. Part I: Nature and significance. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 110 , 1653 – 1663 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1982)110<1653:ASCONF>2.0.CO;2 Johns, R. H. , and Doswell C. A. III , 1992 : Severe local storms forecasting. Wea. Forecasting , 7 , 588 – 612 . 10.1175/1520-0434(1992)007<0588:SLSF>2.0.CO;2 Kalnay, E

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Scott C. Sheridan, Douglas E. Pirhalla, Cameron C. Lee, and Varis Ransibrahmanakul

understand these complex time–space mechanisms associated with weather variation and local ecosystem response is through synoptic climatology. Synoptic climatology represents a holistic approach in categorizing atmospheric conditions and then assessing the relationship between the atmosphere and an environmental outcome ( Yarnal 1993 ). Synoptic methods aim to integrate weather conditions by synthesizing information from multiple variables and/or locations, and using this information to effectively

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Hernán Bechis, Paola Salio, and Juan José Ruiz

regions of the world ( Schaefer 1986 ) like India ( Weston 1972 ; Akter and Tsuboki 2017 ), eastern China ( Golden 1980 ; Qin and Chen 2017 ), central West Africa ( Hamilton et al. 1945 ), Australia ( Arnup and Reeder 2007 ), and Canada ( Taylor et al. 2011 ). In each of these regions, drylines have their own characteristics and development mechanisms, which are strongly linked to local orography and regional synoptic climatology. Dryline climatologies (i.e., the study of their frequency, spatial

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Brian F. O’Hara, Michael L. Kaplan, and S. Jeffrey Underwood

base of contemporary trends in these phenomena. This manuscript presents a synoptic climatology of these snowstorms. This contemporary climatology will be important in affirming, for hydrological purposes, contemporary extrema in snowfall amounts, distribution, and duration. Heavy snowfall can have a major effect on travel in the Sierra Nevada. Although the upper elevations are sparsely populated, many highways (including a major interstate highway) traverse the range and serve a growing winter

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Andrew M. Carleton, Armand D. Silva, Jase Bernhardt, Justin VanderBerg, and David J. Travis

clear-sky outbreaks have occurred, their timing, and their typical atmospheric conditions on subregional to regional scales (i.e., synoptic climatology) is important both for attributing the role of contrails in the local- to regional-scale surface temperature change supplementary to the array of climate forcings (e.g., Dai et al. 1999 ; Pielke 2003 ) and for determining the spatial extent and longevity of CFAs ( Travis and Carleton 2005 ). In pursuit of this ultimate goal, we develop a CFA visual

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Linden Claire Ashcroft, Alexandre Bernardes Pezza, and Ian Simmonds

Australia, represented by Melbourne and Perth. From this, a hemispheric synoptic climatology of cyclones and anticyclones associated with these events is produced and dissected. Next, the average large-scale atmospheric situation and wave amplification mechanisms associated with the CEs are explored. The climate variability of these extreme events is also examined. Finally, a large-scale index is proposed that will place the conditions conducive to cold advection in climate context, irrespective of

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Jill S. M. Coleman and Jeffrey C. Rogers

1. Introduction Identification and analysis of synoptic- and larger-scale circulation patterns and their impact on regional and local climates is a major research theme in the field of synoptic climatology ( Barry and Carleton 2001 ). As part of this field, weather and circulation types, or weather regimes, can be determined from hydrodynamic measures, such as surface pressure variability, geopotential heights, or wind flow patterns ( Reinhold and Pierrehumbert 1982 ; Michelangeli et al. 1995

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Neil P. Lareau and John D. Horel

variability within the primary Pacific and Atlantic oceanic storm tracks ( Lau 1988 ; Wettstein and Wallace 2010 ; Athanasiadis et al. 2010 ) leaving variations in storminess across western North America less studied. The goal of this paper is to document the climatological distribution and variability of storms across western North America. To do so, we will first demonstrate a novel methodology for assessing storm tracks, which is appropriate for mountainous regions and employs synoptic-scale ascent

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Blaine C. Thomas and Jonathan E. Martin

climatology of the Alberta clipper by considering its composite structure and evolution throughout the clipper life cycle. The paper is organized in the following manner. Section 2 contains a description of the dataset and analysis method used to construct a synoptic climatology of Alberta clippers. Section 3 discusses the frequency, propagation, and sea level pressure characteristics of these cyclones. An analysis of the composite structure and evolution of Alberta clippers derived from all cases in

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Clifford Mass and Brigid Dotson

storm. As discussed later, a major difference in the environment for the landfalling major cyclones of Europe and the northwestern United States is the substantial coastal terrain of the latter, which contrasts with the lesser coastal topography of the United Kingdom and the European mainland. The importance of the Northwest terrain on windstorm winds is examined in the discussion section. This paper documents the climatology of strong Pacific Northwest cyclones, examines the synoptic environments

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