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Shan He, Song Yang, Mengmeng Lu, and Zhenning Li

1. Introduction Atmospheric teleconnection patterns have been explored and recognized for decades (e.g., Wallace and Gutzler 1981 ), and these patterns link tropical and extratropical climates over different ocean basins and different continents ( Trenberth et al. 1998 ; Alexander et al. 2002 ; Wang et al. 2004 ; Zhao et al. 2011 ). Among the various teleconnections, the intermediate-frequency teleconnection (IFT; defined for the period of 10–30 days) originates from the entrance of

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Anastasios A. Tsonis, Kyle L. Swanson, and Geli Wang

1. Introduction This work uses methods from graph theory to investigate the role of teleconnection in climate. Because these methods are new to the atmospheric sciences community we begin with an introduction of the basic ideas. Some of these basic principles have been presented in a recent publication ( Tsonis et al. 2006 ), but are presented here as well for convenience and completeness. A network is a system of interacting agents. In the literature an agent is called a node. The nodes in a

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Fuli Zhou, Renhe Zhang, and Jinping Han

out-phase variation of summer rainfall over the Eurasian continent is often accompanied by a midlatitude teleconnection in atmospheric circulation anomalies, which consists of two low-pressure centers over Aral Sea–Caspian Sea region and the Japan–Korean peninsula area, respectively, and a high pressure center over Mongolia region ( Wang et al. 2001 ; Krishnan and Sugi 2001 ). Ding and Wang (2005) proposed a concept of circumglobal teleconnection (CGT) existing in the upper level during boreal

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Changhyun Yoo, Nathaniel C. Johnson, Chueh-Hsin Chang, Steven B. Feldstein, and Young-Ha Kim

high latitudes ( Hoskins and Karoly 1981 ), that Rossby waves triggered by tropical convection will persist for 2 to 3 weeks even after the convection ceases ( Branstator 2014 ), and that the dominant low-frequency (period greater than 10 days) extratropical teleconnection patterns, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Pacific–North American (PNA) patterns, typically persist for about two weeks ( Feldstein 2000 ), even in the absence of strong tropical convection ( Dai et al. 2017

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Xinyu Li, Riyu Lu, Richard J. Greatbatch, Gen Li, and Xiaowei Hong

1. Introduction Summer climate variability over the Eurasian continent is greatly affected by atmospheric teleconnection patterns or Rossby waves (e.g., Lu et al. 2002 ; Wu 2002 ; Ding and Wang 2005 ; Folland et al. 2009 ; Bladé et al. 2012 ; Ding et al. 2011 ; Hong et al. 2018 ; Li and Ruan 2018 ; P. Xu et al. 2019 ). Various teleconnection patterns have been used to explain regional anomalous rainfall ( Wang 1992 ; Iwao and Takahashi 2006 , 2008 ; Chen and Huang 2012 ; Sun and

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Claudia Frauen, Dietmar Dommenget, Nicholas Tyrrell, Michael Rezny, and Scott Wales

1. Introduction El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the most important mode of interannual climate variability. It has its origin in the interaction of the tropical Pacific Ocean and the atmosphere but its teleconnections reach far beyond the tropical Pacific; for example, the tropical Indian and Atlantic Oceans and the adjacent continents are influenced by ENSO (e.g., Latif and Barnett 1995 ; Enfield and Mayer 1997 ). One typical feature of ENSO is its amplitude asymmetry. Positive events

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Dachao Jin, Zhaoyong Guan, and Weiya Tang

stream (EAJS). Anomalous changes in the westerly jet over north Asia and the polar vortex are found to have influences on spring precipitation in MLRYR ( Wang et al. 2002 ) and the mid- and upper-tropospheric temperature anomalies ( Xin et al. 2006 ). Some teleconnections, such as the Eurasian teleconnection pattern (EU), the Arctic Oscillation (AO; Thompson and Wallace 1998 ), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO; Hurrell 1995 ), are found to have impacts on the winter–spring precipitation and

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Minju Kim, Changhyun Yoo, Mi-Kyung Sung, and Sukyoung Lee

1. Introduction Teleconnection patterns are slowly varying, recurrent components of atmospheric circulations that link climate anomalies over large distances across the globe (see the review by Feldstein and Franzke 2017 ). A number of major teleconnection patterns in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) have been identified using various techniques, including correlation ( Wallace and Gutzler 1981 ), empirical orthogonal function (EOF; Barnston and Livezey 1987 ), and cluster ( Johnson et al. 2008

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Fei Liu and Bin Wang

) ( Wang and Fan 1999 ; Wang et al. 2001 ), which are associated with the strong convection centered over the Bay of Bengal ( Fig. 1a ) and the South China Sea/Philippine Sea, respectively ( Fig. 1b ). These two subsystems have distinct teleconnection patterns ( Wang et al. 2001 ). The strong ISM excites an enhanced upper-level Tibetan Plateau high and Mascarene high ( Fig. 1a ), and the strong WNPSM excites a meridional tripolar wave train in the Northern Hemisphere and an upper-level Australian high

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Riyu Lu and Zhongda Lin

1. Introduction The interannual variability of summer climate in the western North Pacific and East Asia (WNP–EA) is dominated by meridional teleconnection (e.g., Lau et al. 2000 ; Wang et al. 2001 ; Lu 2004 ). The meridional teleconnection, at the view of general circulation, is characterized by the zonally elongated anomalies that appear alternately in the meridional direction over this region, in both the lower and upper troposphere. The meridional teleconnection is frequently referred to

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