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Jinwon Kim, Yu Gu, and K. N. Liou

and atmospheric greenhouse gases depends strongly on local climate shaped by geographical characteristics ( Giorgi et al. 1997 ; Kim 2001 ). In the mountainous Sierra Nevada region in which surface elevations vary from near sea level to over 3000 m, large variations in terrain height can cause large spatial variations in the net impact of aerosol radiative forcing on the snow budget due to large variations in low-level temperatures. Spatial variations in the aerosol radiative forcing on important

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George S. Young and Roger A. Pielke

important for determining the required horizontalgrid spacing for mesoscale models so that a subgrid-scale terrain parameterization need not be calculated. Onedimensional terrain height variance spectra for western Colorado are calculated from data collected fromtopographic maps and NOAA/EDIS/NGSDC 30 s average elevation data tapes. The terrain height varianceof this region is found to be linearly dependent on wavelength. The Colorado terrain height variance spectraare compared with those calculated for

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Paul E. Bieringer, Peter S. Ray, and Andrew J. Annunzio

chosen in order to capitalize on a small network of weather instruments located there and its proximity to the KENX WSR-88D. Figure 1 illustrates the terrain elevation in this region, the existing observational resources, and the target forecast region. The small rectangle in the right center of the image indicates the target forecast region located over the Greylock Valley. The Berkshire Mountains provide a complex topographic environment with valley to peak elevation variations of over 2500 ft

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Nora Helbig, Henning Löwe, and Michael Lehning

; Krayenhoff and Voogt 2007 ), its intrinsic relation to RTM has never been derived explicitly. A systematic study of the influence of topography on reflected radiation requires a suitable ensemble of topographies. Because even the simplest case of Gaussian random fields has never been investigated, we are using these as our model topographies. With these ensembles complex terrain is characterized by two fundamental length scales: a typical valley-to-peak elevation difference σ (height of mountains) and

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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and Robert J. Trapp

, Argentina. Table 1. Summary of WRF Model specifications. c. Terrain experiments To further explore the effects of the SDC on CI, supercell formation, and UCG, four additional WRF experiments were conducted in which the terrain of the SDC was systematically varied. To isolate the SDC from surrounding mountainous regions, any terrain within the SDC range with an elevation ≥1000 m were altered for the 3-km domain and interpolated to the 1-km domain (e.g., gray lines in Fig. 2a ). The terrain was

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Guotao Cui, Roger Bales, Robert Rice, Michael Anderson, Francesco Avanzi, Peter Hartsough, and Martha Conklin

addition to that, since the Feather is a large basin with more-complex terrain, either the snow level detected by radar at the foothill of the first western windward ridge or the ground-transition elevation estimated from the four sensor clusters may not well represent the transition elevation in the rain-shadow areas. By using the T wet -based method ( Wang et al. 2019 ; Van Cleave et al. 2019 ; Tamang et al. 2020 ) and thresholds selected using on-the-ground snow accumulation and ablation ( Fig. 5

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I. Palomino and F. Martín

1678 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUME34A Simple Method for Spatial Interpolation of the Wind in Complex Terrain I. PALOMINO AND F. MARTINInstituW de Medic Ambiente. CIEMA T. Madrid, Spain(Manuscript received 27 June 1994, in final form 15 November 1994)ABSTRACT The topographical elevation difference is proposed as a new variable for spatial interpolation of the sparsesurface wind measurements to

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R. Dubayah and S. Loechel

midlatitudes may receive more direct incident flux than north-facing slopes and, therefore, have different latent, sensible, and soil heat exchanges. Under cloudy skies, sky obstruction by nearby terrain, such as occurs at the bottom of deep valleys, significantly decreases the diffuse flux reaching the surface. To account for this variability, topographic models have been created that incorporate various topographic effects using digital elevation data (e.g., see Dozier 1980 , 1989 ; Duguay 1993

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Jinwon Kim, Norman L. Miller, Alexander K. Guetter, and Konstantine P. Georgakakos

falls on the western slopes of the Coastal Range and the Sierra Nevada due to orographic lifting. Low-level moisture transport associated with the barrier jet located at the upwind side of the Sierra Nevada also causes heavy precipitation at the northern Sierra Nevada. This strong orographic forcing generates clearly defined rain shadows within the Central Valley and east of the Sierra Nevada ( Kim and Soong 1996 ). Terrain elevation strongly affects the hydroclimate of the western United States

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Vincent T. Wood, Rodger A. Brown, and Steven V. Vasiloff

elevation angle of +0.5°, they found that the percentage of simulated surface rainfall measured at that angle over flat terrain 1.5 km below the Missoula radar decreased from 80% at the radar to 1% at a range of 220 km. On the other hand, the percentage of simulated surface rainfall measured at a lower elevation angle of −0.8° remained between 80% and 95% throughout the same 220-km distance. A mountaintop radar using negative elevation angles produces a different panorama than the elevation angles

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