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Ekaterina Ezhova, Claudia Cenedese, and Luca Brandt

.g., Straneo and Cenedese 2015 ). The stratification considered is two layers of homogeneous fluids of different temperature separated by a relatively thin layer with a temperature jump—a thermocline. This configuration is a typical model of the upper thermocline layer in lakes, the pycnocline in the ocean, as well as thermal inversions in the atmosphere, when the sharp gradient of the scalar prevails significantly over the scalar change in the layers. The dynamics of vertical jets is governed mainly by

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Jean-Baptiste Sallée, Kevin Speer, Steve Rintoul, and S. Wijffels

1. Introduction Theories about the structure of the thermocline have been widely discussed in the past 50 years using two main models: one assuming an adiabatic thermocline (e.g., Luyten et al. 1983 ) and one assuming a diapycnally diffusive thermocline (e.g., Robinson and Stommel 1959 ; Welander 1959 ). Luyten et al. (1983) developed a multilayer model with which they showed that ventilation of the thermocline happens where the isopycnals outcrop at the sea surface. In their zero mixing

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Kang Xu, Rui Xin Huang, Weiqiang Wang, Congwen Zhu, and Riyu Lu

1. Introduction The equatorial thermocline is an essential component of oceanic circulation and the climate system. It acts as an invisible blanket, separating the very active upper-layer water from the relatively quiet and stagnant deep water below in the tropics. Its effects extend far beyond the tropics through both atmospheric and oceanic teleconnections, greatly affecting global society and natural systems ( Pedlosky 1987 ; Gu and Philander 1997 ). On the interannual time scale, the

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Cara C. Henning, David Archer, and Inez Fung

1. Introduction Fluid flow in the upper thermocline occurs largely along isopycnal surfaces, while the rate of cross-isopycnal mixing tends to be small. However, understanding the structure of the thermocline (e.g., Samelson and Vallis 1997 ), the overturning circulation ( Scott and Marotzke 2002 ), the efficiency of potential carbon sequestration experiments ( Mignone et al. 2004 ), and the degree of high-latitude control on the atmospheric p CO 2 concentration ( Archer et al. 2000 ) all

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Haijun Yang and Fuyao Wang

1. Introduction The thermocline is a layer within a body of water where the temperature changes rapidly with depth. The word “thermocline” first appears in the limnology literature of the late nineteenth century ( Pedlosky 2006 ) and is then more frequently referred as a discontinuity layer or transition layer ( Sverdrup et al. 1942 ). It was very difficult to detect the deep ocean thermocline until the bathythermograph (BT) was invented in 1940s and the expendable bathythermograph (XBT) was

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Yign Noh, Gahyun Goh, Siegfried Raasch, and Micha Gryschka

1. Introduction Strong turbulence usually exists near the surface in the ocean mixed layer as a result of wave breaking (WB; e.g., Agrawal et al. 1992 ; Drennan et al. 1996 ), leading to the response to a surface stabilizing buoyancy flux that is fundamentally different from the atmospheric boundary layer. A diurnal thermocline (or “thermocline” hereafter) is formed at a certain depth during the day in the ocean mixed layer while a temperature gradient remains small near the surface. A strong

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Hey-Jin Kim and Arthur J. Miller

to 1977 and the warm regime as 1977 to 1998. Previous studies of the 1976/77 shift ( Bograd and Lynn 2003 ; McGowan et al. 2003 ; Di Lorenzo et al. 2005 ) all describe this warming and attempt to quantify a deepening of the thermocline after the shift. RM95 show that averaged temperature sections of lines 80 and 90 ( Fig. 2 ) manifest surface warming up to 1°C. The warming signature penetrates below 200 m, which is well below the thermocline. Bograd and Lynn (2003) use temperature harmonics

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Angélique Melet, Lionel Gourdeau, William S. Kessler, Jacques Verron, and Jean-Marc Molines

Sea and its surroundings is relatively unknown, and the only estimates of transport through the straits come from the pioneering Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (WEPOCS) cruises of 1985–86 ( Lindstrom et al. 1987 , 1990 ), from an additional cruise in 1988 ( Butt and Lindstrom 1994 ), and from mooring buoys ( Murray et al. 1995 ). This study focuses on the finescale pathways of the South Pacific LLWBCs, diagnosing the thermocline circulation in the Solomon Sea and its role in the

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Thomas Kilpatrick, Niklas Schneider, and Emanuele Di Lorenzo

water having high spiciness. Advection of spiciness anomalies in the thermocline couples the mid- and low-latitude oceans and may play an important role in climate variations ( Gu and Philander 1997 ; Williams et al. 2007 ). The northeast and southeast subtropical Pacific are favorable regions for generating surface spiciness variability due to a strong lateral spiciness gradient ( Yeager and Large 2004 , 2007 ; Johnson 2006 ; Nonaka and Sasaki 2007 ) and prominent interannual and decadal

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Paola Cessi

obtain scaling laws in terms of the external parameters for two important quantities: the depth of the thermocline h and the poleward buoyancy transport . These theoretical predictions compare well to direct numerical simulations. 2. The model The model is The velocity is u = ( u , υ , w ), and the vertical coordinate is − H < z < 0, where H is the constant depth. The horizontal coordinates are 0 < x < L x and 0 < y < L y . The relation between buoyancy and temperature is b = gα

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