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Angélique Melet
,
Lionel Gourdeau
,
William S. Kessler
,
Jacques Verron
, and
Jean-Marc Molines

Sea and its surroundings is relatively unknown, and the only estimates of transport through the straits come from the pioneering Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (WEPOCS) cruises of 1985–86 ( Lindstrom et al. 1987 , 1990 ), from an additional cruise in 1988 ( Butt and Lindstrom 1994 ), and from mooring buoys ( Murray et al. 1995 ). This study focuses on the finescale pathways of the South Pacific LLWBCs, diagnosing the thermocline circulation in the Solomon Sea and its role in the

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Alexander Sen Gupta
and
Matthew H. England

and convection processes. It also allows for the inclusion of a variety of different tracer types, which can provide additional diagnostics (e.g., ideal age) and may be directly compared with observations [e.g., chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)]. In the Southern Ocean the formation and subsequent northward spreading of intermediate, mode, and thermocline water masses play a vital role in closing the global meridional overturning circulation. This thermohaline circulation (THC) is often visualized as

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Cara C. Henning
,
David Archer
, and
Inez Fung

1. Introduction Fluid flow in the upper thermocline occurs largely along isopycnal surfaces, while the rate of cross-isopycnal mixing tends to be small. However, understanding the structure of the thermocline (e.g., Samelson and Vallis 1997 ), the overturning circulation ( Scott and Marotzke 2002 ), the efficiency of potential carbon sequestration experiments ( Mignone et al. 2004 ), and the degree of high-latitude control on the atmospheric p CO 2 concentration ( Archer et al. 2000 ) all

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Alexey Fedorov
,
Marcelo Barreiro
,
Giulio Boccaletti
,
Ronald Pacanowski
, and
S. George Philander

northern Atlantic and western Europe. Recently, Fedorov et al. (2004) demonstrated, by means of an idealized general circulation model configured for the size of the Pacific Ocean basin, that a similar freshening can also affect the shallow, wind-driven circulation of the ventilated thermocline and its heat transport from regions of gain (mainly in the upwelling zones of low latitudes) to regions of loss in higher latitudes. A freshening that decreases the surface density gradient between low and

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Michael A. Spall
and
David Nieves

approximately 17 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 10 6 m 3 s −1 ) and the mean meridional heat transport is approximately 1.25 PW, which represents 90% of the oceanic heat transport at this latitude ( McCarthy et al. 2015 ). The oceanic circulation is composed of several flow components. Near the surface (within the thin Ekman layer) there is an Ekman transport driven by local wind stress that is generally equatorward at midlatitudes and poleward at 26.5°N. Below the Ekman layer in the main thermocline, flow is geostrophic and

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Bo Young Yim
,
Yign Noh
,
Bo Qiu
,
Sung Hyup You
, and
Jong Hwan Yoon

North Pacific by averaging the values of H e estimated from 102 Argo floats. It is natural, however, to expect both spatial and temporal variation in H e . On the other hand, recent progress in the eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model (OGCM) enables us to estimate D-EHT directly ( Jayne and Marotzke 2002 ; Meijers et al. 2007 ; Volkov et al. 2008 ). Using an OGCM with a horizontal resolution of ¼°, Jayne and Marotzke (2002) reproduced the distribution of D-EHT, and compared it with

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Anirban Sinha
,
Jörn Callies
, and
Dimitris Menemenlis

eddy dynamics to affect the thermocline structure. In other words, the stratification in the interior of the domain is not strongly constrained by the lateral boundary conditions. This is expected because, with the exception of the western boundary current, the wind-driven gyre circulation is southeast to southwestward, and characteristics are directed from the outcrop positions within the domain toward the boundary ( Luyten et al. 1983 ). The southern boundary conditions thus influence only a thin

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Hiroyuki Tsujino
,
Hiroyasu Hasumi
, and
Nobuo Suginohara

hemisphere with a single deep-water source. Changes in density stratification and intensity of circulation were discussed: stratification is improved in the deep layer and thermohaline circulation is intensified when vertical diffusivity is allowed to increase below the thermocline. However, its mechanism is not clarified. Since the Pacific has no deep-water source within it but has multiple deep-water sources outside of it, the situation for the Pacific may be different from a single-basin model with a

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Xueli Yin
,
Dongliang Yuan
,
Xiang Li
,
Zheng Wang
,
Yao Li
,
Corry Corvianawatie
,
Adhitya Kusuma Wardana
,
Dewi Surinati
,
Adi Purwandana
,
Mochamad Furqon Azis Ismail
,
Asep Sandra Budiman
,
Ahmad Bayhaqi
,
Praditya Avianto
,
Edi Kusmanto
,
Priyadi Dwi Santoso
,
Dirhamsyah
, and
Zainal Arifin

. Godfrey , J. S. , 1996 : The effect of the Indonesian Throughflow on ocean circulation and heat exchange with the atmosphere: A review . J. Geophys. Res. , 101 , 12217 – 12237 , https://doi.org/10.1029/95JC03860 . Gordon , A. L. , 1986 : Inter-ocean exchange of thermocline water . J. Geophys. Res. , 91 , 5037 – 5046 , https://doi.org/10.1029/JC091iC04p05037 . Gordon , A. L. , 2005 : Oceanography of the Indonesian Seas and their throughflow . Oceanography , 18 , 14 – 27 , https

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Richard G. Williams
,
Vassil Roussenov
,
M. Susan Lozier
, and
Doug Smith

formation. Classical gyre theory explains how the large-scale North Atlantic wind pattern drives subtropical and subpolar gyre circulations ( Luyten et al. 1983 ), with the subtropical gyre characterized by downwelling, deepening isotherms and a sharp thermocline (a region of enhanced vertical temperature gradient) and the subpolar gyre characterized by upwelling, a shoaling of the isotherms, and a thin or outcropping thermocline. In this study, the relationship between upper-ocean heat content and

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