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Kevin J. Tory, William Thurston, and Jeffrey D. Kepert

condensation levels. Results are presented in section 4 , their implications for understanding and forecasting pyroCu/Cb are discussed in section 5 , and the paper is summarized in section 6 . 2. Plume conceptual model The conceptual model of plume thermodynamics is based on the assumption that fire plumes initially comprise pure combustion gases (containing the fire heat and moisture) that mix with environment air as the hot gases rise. The model assumes the plume entrains air from an inverted

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Tomoki Tozuka, Jing-Jia Luo, Sebastien Masson, and Toshio Yamagata

1. Introduction The first law of thermodynamics is the basic principle in understanding the variability of climate system. For this reason, using a coupled GCM (CGCM), Tozuka et al. (2007) recently investigated the decadal variation of the tropical Indian Ocean through heat budget analysis. They revealed that the decadal modulation in the occurrence of the simulated Indian Ocean dipole (IOD; Saji et al. 1999 ) is mainly induced by variations in the southward Ekman heat transport across 15°S

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Jian-Feng Gu, Zhe-Min Tan, and Xin Qiu

. Any process that disrupts the heat engine will inhibit TC development. Thus, the impact of VWS on TC intensity from a thermodynamics perspective concentrates on the constraint of the heat engine by the intrusion of low entropy from the environment. Therefore, one may consider how the low-entropy air in the environment can affect the inner-core thermodynamics of TCs. Simpson and Riehl (1958) completed the first study of the thermodynamic effects of VWS on TC intensity, and they hypothesized that

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Joachim Pelkowski and Thomas Frisius

/or icy] cloud therefore tends to rise in relation to moist air at the same pressure and temperature” (p. 118). This would fit neatly with the observation that clouds float in air. The assertion, however, stands in stark contrast with this explicit statement by Bohren and Albrecht (1998) : “For fixed air density, parcel density increases with liquid water, whereas for fixed liquid water, parcel density decreases with water vapor” (p. 298). In Emanuel’s summary of thermodynamics for his textbook on

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Samson Hagos, L. Ruby Leung, and Jimy Dudhia

purpose of the study. This experiment will be referred to as the GFDDA case. The rationale for this experimental design is that while the moisture budget is not closed because of the nudging term, the variations in diabatic heating and temperature (which are the focus of this study) remain consistent. In other words, the thermodynamic equation remains balanced for the given diabatic heating, while the overall model dynamics and thermodynamics approximate the observations, as will be shown in the

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Joshua B. Wadler, Joseph J. Cione, Jun A. Zhang, Evan A. Kalina, and John Kaplan

correlated to Atlantic basin TC intensity changes, characterize how the near-surface thermodynamic distributions and boundary layer stability profiles are linked to shear direction, and tie the results of goal 2 to TC intensity change and provide physical reasoning for how the shear direction affects the near-surface thermodynamics due to the combined effect of environmental gradients and the shear-induced asymmetry. 2. Data and method a. Tropical cyclone buoy database The primary analysis

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Andreas Schlueter, Andreas H. Fink, and Peter Knippertz

Rossby waves draw moist monsoonal air masses deep into the subtropics. During the monsoon season, the subtropical jet (STJ) lies farther to the north and thus tropical plumes are rare then ( Fröhlich et al. 2013 ). It is not known whether the precipitation patterns associated with ER waves and the MJO are triggered by the same dynamical process as in wintertime tropical plumes. The influence of tropical waves on rainfall depend on their influence on the local dynamics and thermodynamics. Several

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Marc Stieglitz and Jason E. Smerdon

conditions as predictors of air and ground temperature differences ( Smerdon et al. 2006 ). We develop a simple modeling framework that allows investigations into land–atmosphere coupling and the subsequent impacts on subsurface thermodynamics across a broad range of climates and environments. We perform a qualitative analysis that employs a SLIM scheme to increase our understanding of the seasonal controls that govern subsurface temperature evolution. Our focus is on seasonal characterizations of

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N. J. Steinert, J. F. González-Rouco, P. de Vrese, E. García-Bustamante, S. Hagemann, C. Melo-Aguilar, J. H. Jungclaus, and S. J. Lorenz

consecutive years, is defined as permafrost. Frozen soil thermodynamics are characterized by an exponential temperature attenuation from the surface propagating into the soil with a slope varying with the seasonal cycle ( Carslaw and Jaeger 1959 ; Koven et al. 2013 ). The amount of latent heat used in phase changes of water in the active layer causes the surface temperature profile to attenuate stronger with depth than in the frozen soil below. The ground heat flux is governed by the temperature gradient

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Roop Saini, Mathew Barlow, and Andrew Hoell

northern India (20°–30°N, 70°–90°E), relative to the large-scale onset. The x axis ranges from 15 days before the large-scale onset to 60 days after. The APHRODITE dataset ( Yatagai et al. 2009 ) is used for precipitation. 4. Summary Analysis of the changes in circulation, thermodynamics, and precipitation relative to individual monsoon onset dates allows for a direct observational evaluation of the Rodwell–Hoskins’ “monsoon-desert” hypothesis. We confirm that the thermodynamic interaction of the

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