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Sebastian W. Hoch and C. David Whiteman

October 2006. During this experiment, extensive radiation data were collected in the unique, idealized topographic basin that was formed by a meteorite impact 40 km east of Flagstaff, Arizona, 49 000 yr ago ( Phillips et al. 1991 ). This dataset provides a unique opportunity to evaluate topographic effects on surface radiative fluxes. This article summarizes the terrestrial (longwave) and solar (shortwave) radiation budgets from METCRAX. 2. Background The shortwave radiation budget components can be

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Ming-Jen Yang, Da-Lin Zhang, and Hsiao-Ling Huang

on the model’s resolution of the storm circulations and terrain structures ( Wu et al. 2002 ; Lin et al. 2002 ). Based on numerical experiments, Wu et al. (2002) indicated that the model and the terrain resolutions played equal roles in producing heavy rainfall over Taiwan’s Central Mountain Range (CMR) for Typhoon Herb (1996). Therefore, the third objective of this study is to examine the topographic effects on the rainfall generation of Nari and its along-the-CMR track after landfall. This

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Tingting Qian, Craig C. Epifanio, and Fuqing Zhang

the extra advection terms in (7) – (9) . In general these three effects are interconnected. However, as shown in the appendix , for small mountain heights the effects can be cleanly separated, with each effect appearing as a separate terrain-related wave source at leading order in h 0 . Following R83 and QEZ10 , we refer to the solution for (7) – (11) as the linear sea-breeze wave solution. Departures from the sea-breeze case are then due to topographic effects. b. Resting background

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric D. Maloney, Benjamin A. Toms, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Susan C. van den Heever

increased, convection initiated earlier and shifted to the lee side of the mountains on the two islands. However, Zhu et al. (2017) found that topography was not important to the timing or intensity of the DCP over Hainan Island in their month-long CRM simulations that were initialized and nudged at the boundaries using the average May and June of 2006–15 ERA-Interim data ( Dee et al. 2011 ). Therefore, topographic effects on the DCP may be location specific. Though Qian (2008) , Barthlott and

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Fang-Ching Chien and Ying-Hwa Kuo

comprehensive review on many phenomena associated with fronts approaching the Alps, including prefrontal shallow foehn winds, frontal distortion, flow splitting, and postfrontal bora winds. Observational studies of Freytag (1990) , Kurz (1990) , and Hoinka and Heimann (1988) showed the retardation and modification effects of the Alps on synoptic-scale fronts. There has also been a significant number of studies dealing with mountain effects on fronts in North America. For example, Colle and Mass (1999

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Hung-Chi Kuo, R. T. Williams, Jen-Her Chen, and Yi-Liang Chen

diabatic processes also increase the vertical coupling. Thus, the first-order propagation effect in baroclinic conditions may be similar to the barotropic forecast. Brand and Blelloch (1974) and Ishijima and Estoque (1987) studied the orographic effects on a westbound typhoon crossing Taiwan. Wang (1980) and Shieh et al. (1998) carried out the most comprehensive study of the Taiwan topographic effect on typhoon movement. After examining the behavior of more than 200 typhoons that threatened

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Cheng-Han Wu and Huang-Hsiung Hsu

and propagating components. As a result, the MJO is characterized by the “sequentially downstream development” of deep convection in the Maritime Continent at specific longitudes, for example, 95°, 110°, 120°, and 145°E, where mountainous islands such as Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, and New Guinea are located. Hsu and Lee (2005) further explored the topographic effect on the MJO in the boreal winter in a global context. Their study suggested that the lifting and frictional effects caused by the

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Changheng Chen and Igor Kamenkovich

.g., zonal jets) in the oceans. In this study, we examine the influence of topographic variations on the linear baroclinic instability of a uniform zonal flow. Our particular focus here is on the effects of zonal topographic slopes; an analysis of meridional slopes is carried out for comparison. This initial linear stage is an essential element in the process of eddy and jet formation, and linearized models have been proven to be useful in describing complex nonlinear interactions ( Berloff et al. 2009a

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Marta Trodahl and Pål Erik Isachsen

stratified because of the large influx of river water and the distillation process caused by the seasonal cycle of sea ice freezing and melting. So it is in the northern North Atlantic and in the sub-Arctic that topographic effects are most dramatic. The strong topographic steering in these regions can be seen in the top panel of Fig. 1 . Shown are observed time-mean sea surface temperatures (SST) extracted from the Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA) reanalysis ( Donlon et

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Todd A. Schroeder, Robbie Hember, Nicholas C. Coops, and Shunlin Liang

by presenting a direct comparison of the NARR and MODIS SW↓ t surfaces. Elevation effects are explored by examining the response of the SW↓ surfaces over a mountainous elevation transect located in central Oregon. Semivariograms and monthly scatterplots are also used to further understand the effect of topographic correction on the incoming solar radiation surfaces. Section 5 discusses the validation results and potential implications of using the SW↓ surfaces as inputs to forest productivity

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