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Walker S. Ashley
,
Andrew J. Krmenec
, and
Rick Schwantes

1. Introduction Nocturnal tornadoes appear to be particularly hazardous to humans as evidenced by recent killer tornadoes ( Table 1 ) and tornado outbreaks. As an example, 80 tornado fatalities occurred during 2007, with 59 (or 73.8%) of those fatalities taking place between sunset and sunrise; moreover, 19 of 26 (or 73.1% of) 2007’s killer tornadoes occurred at night. Nocturnal tornado events enhance human vulnerability and reduce the success of mitigation activities for several reasons. First

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Joanne Kunkel
,
John Hanesiak
, and
David Sills

1. Introduction Knowing the tornado climatology of a region or country is important not only for tornado warning verification but to better understand 1) the true risk of the hazard, 2) the potential associations with local geographic features (e.g., terrain, bodies of water), and 3) the connections to the storm environment over various scales; the last two can contribute to improved prediction. Tornado climatology data are also useful in other sectors such as insurance and municipality

Open access
Ariel E. Cohen
,
Joel B. Cohen
,
Richard L. Thompson
, and
Bryan T. Smith

1. Introduction Recent significant advances have occurred in the meteorological community’s ability to reproducibly evaluate and quantify the threat for tornadoes. In an age of increasing need for accurate, high-precision forecasts, this work is becoming increasingly integrated into daily National Weather Service operations. Smith et al. (2012) and Thompson et al. (2012) laid the initial groundwork for relating storm-scale characteristics and near-storm environments to tornado damage

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Walker S. Ashley

1. Introduction and background Tornadoes are nature’s most violent windstorms and are a significant hazard to life and property throughout the United States. Approximately 800–1400 tornadoes are reported in the United States in any given year, with only a small percentage of these events producing casualties. Although there have been numerous advances in tornado detection, warning dissemination, and public awareness, tornado casualties cannot be prevented entirely as evidenced by recent

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James B. Elsner
,
Tyler Fricker
,
Holly M. Widen
,
Carla M. Castillo
,
John Humphreys
,
Jihoon Jung
,
Shoumik Rahman
,
Amanda Richard
,
Thomas H. Jagger
,
Tachanat Bhatrasataponkul
,
Christian Gredzens
, and
P. Grady Dixon

1. Introduction A tornado is a rotating column of air swirling upward from the surface and extending from a cumuliform cloud. The strongest tornadoes develop under rotating thunderstorms (i.e., supercells). Not all supercells produce tornadoes. This fact suggests that tornado initiation is sensitive to an interplay of many processes across a range of spatial scales, including the scale of a few kilometers at which the flow is described as a converging, swirling plume ( Lewellen et al. 2000

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Daniel G. Butt
,
Aaron L. Jaffe
,
Connell S. Miller
,
Gregory A. Kopp
, and
David M. L. Sills

1. Introduction The enhanced Fujita (EF) scale is implemented in several countries such as Canada, the United States, China, and Japan to assess the severity of tornadoes. Within this scale, various damage indicators (DIs) are evaluated, each having corresponding degrees of damage (DOD) along with their associated wind speeds. The spectrum of DODs typically spans from the point of minimal discernible damage to the complete devastation of the DI. ( McDonald and Mehta 2006 ). The overall EF

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James B. Elsner
,
Tyler Fricker
, and
William D. Berry

1. Introduction Nearly one-fifth of all natural-hazard fatalities in the United States are the direct result of tornadoes ( National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 2015 ). A tornado that hits a city is capable of inflicting hundreds or thousands of casualties (death or injury). Data from the Storm Prediction Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration show that the 27 April 2011 Sawyerville–Eoline, Alabama, tornado produced 1564 casualties, with 64 of them resulting in

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Jingyi Wen
,
Zhiyong Meng
,
Lanqiang Bai
, and
Ruilin Zhou

1. Introduction A tornado outbreak event is defined as 10 or more tornadoes from a single, organized weather system ( Galway 1977 ). Tornado outbreaks often occur in the United States ( Zhou et al. 2022 ). Even using a relatively high criterion to determine tornado outbreak events in which 10 or more tornadoes of at least level EF1 must occur within 6 h, Anderson-Frey et al. (2018) showed that 134 tornado outbreaks occurred in the contiguous United States from 2003 to 2015, producing

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Abdullah Kahraman
and
Paul M. Markowski

1. Introduction This paper presents what is believed to be the most comprehensive climatology of tornadoes in Turkey to date. [The only other known compilation is available on the Turkish Meteorological Services Web page (in Turkish) at http://www.dmi.gov.tr/FILES/arastirma/afetler/hortum.pdf . It consists of 31 tornadoes recorded between 1940 and 2010.] The climatology spans the years 1818–2013. Tornado climatologies recently have been published for several European countries, including

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Jenni Rauhala
,
Harold E. Brooks
, and
David M. Schultz

1. Introduction As late as the mid-1990s, Finnish meteorologists generally assumed that severe convective storms or tornadoes did not occur in Finland and, if they occurred, they were rare. Tornado reports were not collected, and no research on severe convective storms was published from the 1960s until recently. However, since 1997, severe thunderstorms, and especially tornadoes, have received a lot of media attention in Finland. Thus, Finnish meteorologists have started to appreciate the

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