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Scott St. George, David M. Meko, Martin-Philippe Girardin, Glen M. MacDonald, Erik Nielsen, Greg T. Pederson, David J. Sauchyn, Jacques C. Tardif, and Emma Watson

1. Introduction Most prior studies using tree-ring data to understand past drought in the Canadian Prairie Provinces have been based on either single chronologies (composite time series that represent mean growth within the stand of trees) from individual locations (e.g., Sauchyn and Beaudoin 1998 ; Sauchyn et al. 2003 ) or multiple chronologies from a relatively small area [100–200-km transects; e.g., Case and MacDonald (1995) ; St. George and Nielsen (2002) ; Girardin and Tardif (2005

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R. K. Kaufmann, R. D. D’Arrigo, L. F. Paletta, H. Q. Tian, W. Matt Jolly, and R. B. Myneni

1. Introduction An extensive amount of literature attempts to reconstruct climate using tree rings (e.g., Fritts 1976 ; Schweingruber 1988 ; Cook and Kairiukstis 1990 ; http://web.utk.edu/~grissino/references.htm ). These efforts are based in part on studies that identify the month(s) in which temperature and/or precipitation correlates most closely with density or ring width. Studies indicate that the ability to isolate the months and climate variables (e.g., temperature, soil moisture

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R. Stockton Maxwell, Amy E. Hessl, Edward R. Cook, and Brendan M. Buckley

streamflow (<120 yr) that are not adequate to assess the variability in water quantity within the context of past centuries ( Stockton and Jacoby 1976 ; Meko et al. 1995 ; Woodhouse and Lukas 2006 ). Therefore, any information on past variability in spring precipitation may be used to better prepare for future changes in water quantity and quality. The development of tree-ring reconstructions of precipitation, drought, snowfall, and streamflow is well established, and reconstructions are commonly used

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Carlos Le Quesne, David W. Stahle, Malcolm K. Cleaveland, Matthew D. Therrell, Juan Carlos Aravena, and Jonathan Barichivich

side of the cordillera in central Chile [at El Asiento (ELA); Fig. 1 ], where it occurs in isolated populations near the tree line at elevations between 1600 and 2200 m. This species has clear annual growth rings that are sensitive to moisture supply, and individuals live for more that 1200 yr. For this study, we developed an expanded network of A. chilensis tree-ring chronologies in central Chile. We use the two longest and most precipitation-sensitive series to reconstruct a regional average

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Naresh Devineni, Upmanu Lall, Neil Pederson, and Edward Cook

basin was in the 1960s, that is, about 50 years ago, extended records of hydrologic variability from paleoproxies such as tree rings could be very useful for assessing the likely return period of this drought for regional water supply planning and drought operation. Recently, impacts on fisheries during the summer low flow period have led to questions concerning the reservoir operating policies that are designed to avert the 1960s drought risk ( Kolesar and Serio 2011 ). Numerous studies have

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A. Park Williams, Joel Michaelsen, Steven W. Leavitt, and Christopher J. Still

productivity are difficult to quantify using satellite-derived spectral estimates of relative greenness, liquid water storage, and leaf area. Conveniently, many extratropical trees have been growing for hundreds or even thousands of years while annually recording growth data in the width of the annual growth rings in their trunks. Wide rings generally grow during years of optimal climatic conditions and narrow rings occur in response to poor conditions ( Babbage 1838 ; Douglass 1909 ; Fritts 1976

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Keyan Fang, Xiaohua Gou, Fahu Chen, Edward Cook, Jinbao Li, Brendan Buckley, and Rosanne D’Arrigo

current drought regimes into a longer context of the natural variability of climate in our study region in NW China (the area north of 35°N and west of 110°E). Several tree-ring based climate reconstructions have been published for a geographic point or small areas of dozens of square kilometers in this region (e.g., Fang et al. 2009 , 2010b ; Gou et al. 2008 ; Li et al. 2006 ; Liu et al. 2004 ; Shao et al. 2005 ; Sheppard et al. 2004 ; Yuan et al. 2003 ; Zhang et al. 2003 ). In this paper

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R. Justin DeRose, Shih-Yu Wang, and John D. Shaw

1. Introduction Networks of tree-ring data represent important contributions to the study of regional climate, providing in situ evidence of past spatiotemporal climate variability. Tree-ring indices yield annually dated records of climate events from specific locations. In the semiarid western United States, a voluminous literature has reconstructed past climate using tree-ring chronologies, for example, precipitation ( Gray et al. 2004b ), temperature ( Briffa et al. 1992 ), drought ( Cook et

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Justin J. Wettstein, Jeremy S. Littell, John M. Wallace, and Ze’ev Gedalof

1. Introduction Many paleoclimate reconstructions rely on tree-ring width measurements or multiproxy data assemblages including ring widths. Proxy-based reconstructions incorporating ring widths have been performed for climate variables such as regional, hemispheric, or global average surface air temperature ( Jones et al. 1998 ; Mann et al. 1999 ; Crowley and Lowery 2000 ; Briffa et al. 2001 ; Esper et al. 2002 ; Mann and Jones 2003 ; Jones and Mann 2004 ; Huang 2004 ; Moberg et al

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Celine Herweijer, Richard Seager, Edward R. Cook, and Julien Emile-Geay

the nature and extent of long-term natural drought variability in North America, the use of centuries-long, gridded annual tree-ring chronologies provides us with an important new tool (see also Cook et al. 1999 , 2004 ). In this paper, using the recent “North American Drought Atlas” of Cook and Krusic (2004) , we will place modern-day North American drought variability in the context of the last 1000 yr of natural aridity changes. The drought atlas provides annual tree-ring drought

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