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Lu Liu and Yuqing Wang

1. Introduction In response to global warming, precipitation has shown significant regional dependent trends in the globe. For more than half of the global land, an increasing probability of intense precipitation events has been documented by Groisman et al. (2005) . A number of weather systems can produce intensive precipitation over land. The tropical cyclone (TC) is one of them. A strong TC can produce torrential rainfall, leading to floods and landslides after their landfall, which could

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Yanjun Guo and Yihui Ding

; Wang and Gaffen 2001 ). China has a dense radiosonde network that was launched in the 1950s; the network includes 116 radiosonde stations and mandatory pressure levels specified by the World Meteorological Organization ( WMO 1996 ). However, previous research of the free-atmosphere climatology only used data from several of the stations ( Zhai and Eskridge 1996 ). Elucidating trends in free-atmosphere temperature over China based on valid radiosonde data should provide insight into important

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Luis A. Gil-Alana

1. Introduction The main purpose of this article is to examine if there are significant trends in the global and hemispheric temperature anomaly series. Denoting a time series for temperature anomalies by y t , the standard approach is to employ a simple linear regression model of form testing the significance of the estimated slope coefficient for β in (1) . It is not uncommon to find estimates of β based on ordinary least squares (OLS). However, statistical inference based on

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Alberto Troccoli, Karl Muller, Peter Coppin, Robert Davy, Chris Russell, and Annette L. Hirsch

1. Introduction Long-term variations in near-surface wind speed, as measured by linear trends, have a marked impact on a variety of applications including wind energy, building construction, coastal erosion, evaporation rates, among others. Despite this, the robustness and causes of variations in near-surface wind remain poorly understood. Several recent studies have reported significant linear wind speed trends, mostly toward declining winds, in the last decades around the globe. Guo et al

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David R. Easterling, Grant Goodge, Matthew J. Menne, Claude N. Williams Jr., and David Levinson

1. Introduction The globally averaged annual surface temperature time series since 1900 (e.g., Folland et al. 2001 ; Levinson et al. 2004 ) appears to be characterized by three distinct periods with differing temporal trends. During the early part of the record a positive trend occurs through the early 1940s, which is followed by a period of little change or possibly a slight negative trend. Since the late 1970s, however, the observed trend in global surface air temperature is approximately 0

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Budong Qian, Xuebin Zhang, Kai Chen, Yang Feng, and Ted O’Brien

of the country ( Shabbar and Bonsal 2003 ). An increase in spring temperature, in western Canada in particular, has resulted in earlier snowmelt and consequently earlier spring freshets ( Zhang et al. 2001a ). The observed trend in upward precipitation is mainly due to increases in the number of small-to-moderate rainfall and snowfall events ( Zhang et al. 2000 , 2001b ). A more recent analysis ( Vincent and Mekis 2006 ) using a longer time series supports earlier findings ( Zhang et al. 2000

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Kenneth E. Kunkel, Michael A. Palecki, Kenneth G. Hubbard, David A. Robinson, Kelly T. Redmond, and David R. Easterling

effects. Snow is an important component of annual runoff, recharge, and water supplies, and greatly affects water management in the northern and western United States. Rapid melt of snowpack is a major cause of floods in the northern United States. Recent studies have examined historical variability in snow cover ( Hughes and Robinson 1996 ; Frei et al. 1999 ). However, studies of trends in other aspects of snow climatology, such as snowfall and snow depth, have generally examined records from the

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Sorin Burcea, Roxana Cică, and Roxana Bojariu

of Euros ( Kunz and Puskeiler 2010 ). Consequently, hail climatologies and trends have been developed, permitting the identification of hail-affected areas, hail frequency, its seasonality, and intensity. Lately, damaging hailstorms were reported and hail studies have been developed for different regions of the world, including Europe, Asia, Africa, North and South America, and Australia. These studies used data obtained from point measurements such as weather stations and hailpads, but also from

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Doo-Sun R. Park, Chang-Hoi Ho, Joo-Hong Kim, and Hyeong-Seog Kim

, studies based on high-resolution climate model simulations suggested that the relative number of intense TCs, maximum wind speed, and TC-induced rainfall may increase or remain unchanged in a warmer climate, indicating that the results are highly dependent on the model used ( Oouchi et al. 2006 ; Yoshimura et al. 2006 ; Gualdi et al. 2008 ; Murakami et al. 2011 ). Analysis of observational records also produced conflicting interpretations of historical trends of TC intensity for the WNP basin

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Nathan Paldor

period to another. The large variability, asymmetry, and nonnormal distribution of annual rainfall at a single station over several decades completely mask any long-term trend that might exist in that record. In an attempt to overcome this inherent large variability of annual rainfall at a single station, the station-to-station rainfall ratio (i.e., the record of ratios between annual rainfall at one station and that at another station in the same year) was employed in recent studies to detect long

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