Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 18,321 items for :

  • Tropical cyclones x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Hui Yu
,
Guomin Chen
,
Cong Zhou
,
Wai Kin Wong
,
Mengqi Yang
,
Yinglong Xu
,
Peiyan Chen
,
Rijin Wan
, and
Xinrong Hu

Tropical cyclones (TCs) are among the most catastrophic natural hazards, causing severe damage to many countries every year ( Yu and Chen 2019 ). According to the statistics from the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT; www.emdat.be/ ), TCs globally ranked as the top natural disaster in 2019 in terms of both the affected population (over 30 million) and direct economic losses (over 50 billion U.S. dollars). Reductions in TC-related damages rely heavily on the improvements in TC forecasting and

Full access
Jing Zhang
,
Jie Feng
,
Hong Li
,
Yuejian Zhu
,
Xiefei Zhi
, and
Feng Zhang

1. Introduction Tropical cyclones are severe weather events and have huge impacts on human activities and property. Tropical cyclone activities involve complex dynamic and thermodynamic processes across multiple spatiotemporal scales ( Yanai 1964 ; Rotunno and Emanuel 1987 ; Bryan and Rotunno 2009 ). Although numerical weather prediction models have improved significantly in recent years, the simulation and prediction of tropical cyclones are still constrained by deficiencies in the physics

Open access
Adrien Colomb
,
Tarik Kriat
, and
Marie-Dominique Leroux

1. Introduction Over the last 20 years, significant progress has been made in the field of tropical cyclone (TC) numerical forecasting, mainly through a global reduction of track forecast errors. However, there is still room for improvement on the front of intensity guidance ( DeMaria et al. 2014 ). In this context, intensity forecasts given by operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) models at the global scale, such as IFS 1 and GFS 2 are taken into account by TC forecasters, albeit

Full access
Rui Jin
,
Hui Yu
,
Zhiwei Wu
,
Johnny C. L. Chan
,
Ming Ying
, and
Peng Zhang

1. Introduction The western North Pacific (WNP) accounts for almost one-third of named tropical cyclones (TCs) per year in the world, causing destructive and deadly natural disasters in East Asia and surrounding islands ( Gray 1968 ; Chan 2005 ; Zhang et al. 2009 ; Yu and Chen 2019 ; Tang et al. 2022 ). With a good understanding of sources of predictabilities for TC seasonal prediction and the rapid development of high-resolution climate models, seasonal outlooks of the WNP TC

Restricted access
Lu Yi
,
Chen Peiyan
,
Yu Hui
,
Fang Pingzhi
,
Gong Ting
,
Wang Xiaodong
, and
Song Shengnan

1. Introduction Tropical cyclones (TCs), which are associated with extreme wind, precipitation, and storm surges, are responsible for significant loss of life and property damage in coastal areas ( Smith and Katz 2013 ; Y. Lu et al. 2018 ). Often, a substantial number of losses are directly or indirectly related to TC rainfall, including wind-driven rain penetration and inland flooding ( Czajkowski et al. 2017 ; Zhang et al. 2018 ; Yu and Chen 2019 ). TC rainfall may significantly

Free access
Michael C. Kruk
,
Kenneth R. Knapp
, and
David H. Levinson

1. Introduction Global tropical cyclone (TC) data have a wide variety of applications, including performing climate change research, determining appropriate building codes for coastal zones, assessing risk for emergency managers, and analyzing potential losses for insurance and business interests ( Landsea et al. 2004 ). TC tracks are used in constructing automated analyses of tropical cyclones, such as performed by Kossin et al. (2007) , which used the Hurricane Satellite dataset ( Knapp and

Full access
Yi Dai
,
Sharanya J. Majumdar
, and
David S. Nolan

1. Introduction Environmental shear is known to be an important control on tropical cyclone (TC) structure and intensity. Previous studies have focused on the detrimental effects of strong environmental shear on TC intensification (e.g., DeMaria 1996 ; Frank and Ritchie 2001 ; Paterson et al. 2005 ; Tang and Emanuel 2010 ; Riemer et al. 2010 ; Nguyen et al. 2017 ). For example, Simpson and Riehl (1958) first proposed the ventilation of the TC core by dry environmental air at midlevels

Full access
Roman Kowch
and
Kerry Emanuel

1. Introduction The specter of a sudden intensification of a tropical cyclone just before striking a populous region stimulates a strong interest in understanding and forecasting such an event. For example, a NASA-sponsored field experiment, Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes ( Braun et al. 2013 , p. 346), was partially devoted to the problem of rapid intensification (RI). 1 One of the experimental questions was “what environmental (e.g., vertical wind shear, upper-level outflow jets

Full access
John Molinari
,
David M. Romps
,
David Vollaro
, and
Leon Nguyen

1. Introduction The azimuthal asymmetry of convection in tropical cyclones experiencing vertical wind shear has been described extensively. Corbosiero and Molinari (2002 , 2003 ) examined the cloud-to-ground lightning distribution in tropical cyclones. The ratio of downshear to upshear flashes was 6:1 overall, and more than 9:1 when ambient vertical wind shear exceeded 5 m s −1 . Inside the 100-km radius, the lightning frequency maximum occurred in the downshear-left quadrant, while from 100

Full access
Zhanhong Ma
,
Jianfang Fei
,
Lei Liu
,
Xiaogang Huang
, and
Yan Li

1. Introduction The warm ocean serves as the energy source for the development and maintenance of tropical cyclones (TCs), which are one of the most devastating natural disasters in the world ( Malkus and Riehl 1960 ; Simpson et al. 2002 ). As evidenced in various observations, moving storms can inversely induce evident cooling of the sea surface temperature (SST), typically referred to as cold wake, by bringing cold subsurface water into the sea surface via upwelling, entrainment, and shear

Full access