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John Molinari, David M. Romps, David Vollaro, and Leon Nguyen

1. Introduction The azimuthal asymmetry of convection in tropical cyclones experiencing vertical wind shear has been described extensively. Corbosiero and Molinari (2002 , 2003 ) examined the cloud-to-ground lightning distribution in tropical cyclones. The ratio of downshear to upshear flashes was 6:1 overall, and more than 9:1 when ambient vertical wind shear exceeded 5 m s −1 . Inside the 100-km radius, the lightning frequency maximum occurred in the downshear-left quadrant, while from 100

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Robert A. Houze Jr.

1. Introduction It is tempting to think of clouds in the inner regions of tropical cyclones as cumulonimbus that just happen to be located in a spinning vortex. However, this view is oversimplified, as the clouds in a tropical cyclone are intricately connected with the dynamics of the cyclone itself. Perhaps up to now it has not been important to know the detailed inner workings of tropical cyclone clouds. However, as high-resolution full-physics models become more widely used, forecasting the

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Robert A. Houze Jr.

1. Introduction It is tempting to think of clouds in the inner regions of tropical cyclones as cumulonimbus that just happen to be located in a spinning vortex. However, this view is oversimplified, as the clouds in a tropical cyclone are intricately connected with the dynamics of the cyclone itself. Perhaps up to now it has not been important to know the detailed inner workings of tropical cyclone clouds. However, as high-resolution full-physics models become more widely used, forecasting the

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Michael C. Kruk, Kenneth R. Knapp, and David H. Levinson

1. Introduction Global tropical cyclone (TC) data have a wide variety of applications, including performing climate change research, determining appropriate building codes for coastal zones, assessing risk for emergency managers, and analyzing potential losses for insurance and business interests ( Landsea et al. 2004 ). TC tracks are used in constructing automated analyses of tropical cyclones, such as performed by Kossin et al. (2007) , which used the Hurricane Satellite dataset ( Knapp and

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Roger K. Smith and Michael T. Montgomery

1. Introduction Because of the challenges of forecasting tropical cyclone intensity change, the problem of understanding how intensity change occurs has been at the forefront of tropical cyclone research for a number of years, especially in the context of the rapid intensification or decay of storms. Rapid intensification (often abbreviated RI) is conventionally defined as an increase in near-surface 1-min-average wind speed exceeding about 15 m s −1 over a period of 24 h ( Kaplan and DeMaria

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Hironori Fudeyasu and Ryuji Yoshida

1. Introduction A tropical cyclone (TC) forms under large-scale environmental conditions favorable for cyclogenesis (TCG), which are generally found where sea surface temperatures (SSTs) exceed 26°C and supportive large-scale flow patterns coexist ( Gray 1968 , 1998 ). A large body of research on the large-scale environmental conditions favorable for TCG has been conducted (e.g., Emanuel and Nolan 2004 ; Camargo et al. 2007 ; McGauley and Nolan 2011 ; Korty et al. 2012 ). Ritchie and

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Yi Dai, Sharanya J. Majumdar, and David S. Nolan

1. Introduction The role of the environment in influencing tropical cyclone (TC) genesis, track, and structure has been an active area of research for several decades. Common examples include the direct influence by vertical wind shear, air–sea interactions, and low-humidity environmental air on the TC (e.g., Emanuel 1986 ; DeMaria 1996 ; Thorncroft and Hodges 2001 ). In addition, and of importance in this paper, the environmental flow can influence the TC structure by first interacting with

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Jason P. Dunion, Christopher D. Thorncroft, and Christopher S. Velden

1. Introduction Although numerous studies have documented the existence of diurnal maxima and minima associated with tropical oceanic convection and the tropical cyclone (TC) upper-level cirrus canopy, we lack a thorough understanding of the nature and causes of these variations and especially the extent to which these variations are important for TCs. It is well known that the coherent diurnal cycle of deep cumulus convection and associated rainfall is different over the land and ocean ( Gray

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Eric A. Hendricks, Melinda S. Peng, Bing Fu, and Tim Li

1. Introduction With regard to tropical cyclone (TC) intensity, there are two important questions: (i) what is the maximum intensity a TC may achieve in a given environment, and (ii) at what rate will a TC change its intensity in that environment? The former question has largely been answered by maximum potential intensity (MPI) theories ( Emanuel 1986 , 1988 ; Holland 1997 ). The latter question is much more problematic. Intensity change can be defined as ∂ V max /∂ t or ∂ p min /∂ t

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Daniel P. Stern and David S. Nolan

1. Introduction One of the most important features distinguishing tropical cyclones from extratropical cyclones is the characteristic warm core, whereby the temperature in the center of the tropical cyclone is warmer than its environment. The existence of the warm core has long been recognized, but surprisingly little is known about its mean structure and variability. Ultimately, the temperature distribution in the hurricane is related to the tangential wind distribution through thermal wind

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