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Michael C. Kruk, Kenneth R. Knapp, and David H. Levinson

1. Introduction Global tropical cyclone (TC) data have a wide variety of applications, including performing climate change research, determining appropriate building codes for coastal zones, assessing risk for emergency managers, and analyzing potential losses for insurance and business interests ( Landsea et al. 2004 ). TC tracks are used in constructing automated analyses of tropical cyclones, such as performed by Kossin et al. (2007) , which used the Hurricane Satellite dataset ( Knapp and

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Yi Dai, Sharanya J. Majumdar, and David S. Nolan

1. Introduction Environmental shear is known to be an important control on tropical cyclone (TC) structure and intensity. Previous studies have focused on the detrimental effects of strong environmental shear on TC intensification (e.g., DeMaria 1996 ; Frank and Ritchie 2001 ; Paterson et al. 2005 ; Tang and Emanuel 2010 ; Riemer et al. 2010 ; Nguyen et al. 2017 ). For example, Simpson and Riehl (1958) first proposed the ventilation of the TC core by dry environmental air at midlevels

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John Molinari, David M. Romps, David Vollaro, and Leon Nguyen

1. Introduction The azimuthal asymmetry of convection in tropical cyclones experiencing vertical wind shear has been described extensively. Corbosiero and Molinari (2002 , 2003 ) examined the cloud-to-ground lightning distribution in tropical cyclones. The ratio of downshear to upshear flashes was 6:1 overall, and more than 9:1 when ambient vertical wind shear exceeded 5 m s −1 . Inside the 100-km radius, the lightning frequency maximum occurred in the downshear-left quadrant, while from 100

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Roman Kowch and Kerry Emanuel

1. Introduction The specter of a sudden intensification of a tropical cyclone just before striking a populous region stimulates a strong interest in understanding and forecasting such an event. For example, a NASA-sponsored field experiment, Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes ( Braun et al. 2013 , p. 346), was partially devoted to the problem of rapid intensification (RI). 1 One of the experimental questions was “what environmental (e.g., vertical wind shear, upper-level outflow jets

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Hironori Fudeyasu and Ryuji Yoshida

1. Introduction A tropical cyclone (TC) forms under large-scale environmental conditions favorable for cyclogenesis (TCG), which are generally found where sea surface temperatures (SSTs) exceed 26°C and supportive large-scale flow patterns coexist ( Gray 1968 , 1998 ). A large body of research on the large-scale environmental conditions favorable for TCG has been conducted (e.g., Emanuel and Nolan 2004 ; Camargo et al. 2007 ; McGauley and Nolan 2011 ; Korty et al. 2012 ). Ritchie and

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Zhanhong Ma, Jianfang Fei, Lei Liu, Xiaogang Huang, and Yan Li

1. Introduction The warm ocean serves as the energy source for the development and maintenance of tropical cyclones (TCs), which are one of the most devastating natural disasters in the world ( Malkus and Riehl 1960 ; Simpson et al. 2002 ). As evidenced in various observations, moving storms can inversely induce evident cooling of the sea surface temperature (SST), typically referred to as cold wake, by bringing cold subsurface water into the sea surface via upwelling, entrainment, and shear

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Yi Dai, Sharanya J. Majumdar, and David S. Nolan

1. Introduction The role of the environment in influencing tropical cyclone (TC) genesis, track, and structure has been an active area of research for several decades. Common examples include the direct influence by vertical wind shear, air–sea interactions, and low-humidity environmental air on the TC (e.g., Emanuel 1986 ; DeMaria 1996 ; Thorncroft and Hodges 2001 ). In addition, and of importance in this paper, the environmental flow can influence the TC structure by first interacting with

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Andrew J. Dowdy, Lixin Qi, David Jones, Hamish Ramsay, Robert Fawcett, and Yuri Kuleshov

1. Introduction Tropical cyclones (TCs) are the most dangerous and damaging weather events to regularly affect tropical areas. In addition to the inherent difficulties associated with prediction of extreme events in general, historical records for the various TC basins demonstrate significant interannual variability in the temporal and spatial distribution of TCs. To improve the understanding of TC climatology and variability, and therefore ultimately reduce the risk and damage associated with

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Jason P. Dunion, Christopher D. Thorncroft, and Christopher S. Velden

1. Introduction Although numerous studies have documented the existence of diurnal maxima and minima associated with tropical oceanic convection and the tropical cyclone (TC) upper-level cirrus canopy, we lack a thorough understanding of the nature and causes of these variations and especially the extent to which these variations are important for TCs. It is well known that the coherent diurnal cycle of deep cumulus convection and associated rainfall is different over the land and ocean ( Gray

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Eric A. Hendricks, Melinda S. Peng, Bing Fu, and Tim Li

1. Introduction With regard to tropical cyclone (TC) intensity, there are two important questions: (i) what is the maximum intensity a TC may achieve in a given environment, and (ii) at what rate will a TC change its intensity in that environment? The former question has largely been answered by maximum potential intensity (MPI) theories ( Emanuel 1986 , 1988 ; Holland 1997 ). The latter question is much more problematic. Intensity change can be defined as ∂ V max /∂ t or ∂ p min /∂ t

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