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William M. Frank and George S. Young

1. Introduction For the past several decades there has been a persistent myth that the annual global number of tropical cyclones is observed to be more stable than would be expected given the large variability observed within the individual cyclone basins. Two popular explanations for this perceived observation have been proposed. Most references to the myth have invoked it as evidence that there are important interactions between the storms and the global climate such that storm

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Huang-Hsiung Hsu, Ching-Hui Hung, An-Kai Lo, Chun-Chieh Wu, and Chih-Wen Hung

variability. Similar effects on the climate variability may occur in the areas where tropical cyclones (TC) are active, such as the tropical western North and South Pacific, the tropical North Atlantic, and the tropical Indian Ocean. This is because TCs are vortices of strong positive vorticity, which is not accompanied (or compensated) by vortices of negative vorticity with roughly equal strength. As demonstrated in Fig. 1 , the climate variability in the TC-prone areas may enlarge because of the

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Jau-Ming Chen, Tim Li, and Ching-Feng Shih

EA monsoon rainband exhibits a stepwise progression feature, with a maximum rainband over southern China in May, a mei-yu front over central China in June, and polar frontal rains over northeastern China in July (e.g., Lau et al. 1988 ; Li and Wang 2005 ). The WNP TC activity and monsoon also undergo a noticeable interannual variability. Both the local sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and remote forcing of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, tropical Indian Ocean, and Antarctic Oscillation

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Kin Sik Liu and Johnny C. L. Chan

1. Introduction The variability of the tropical cyclone (TC) activity over the western North Pacific (WNP) has received much attention during the last decade. Many studies have been performed on the variations in TC number (e.g., Chan 1985 ; Dong 1988 ; Chen et al. 1998 ; Matsuura et al. 2003 ). Some more recent studies also examine the variations of TC intensity ( Chan and Liu 2004 ; Camargo and Sobel 2005 ; Chan 2007 , 2008 ). However, not many studies have been done on the variability

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Xianan Jiang, Terence L. Kubar, Sun Wong, William S. Olson, and Duane E. Waliser

upper left of the panel). (c) Standard deviation (%) of 20–70-day bandpass-filtered low cloud fraction for May–October. As to the variability of low clouds, while most of these aforementioned studies have focused on synoptic or seasonal-to-interannual time scales, rather limited attention has been placed on their subseasonal variability with a time scale of several weeks. It has been widely reported that tropical deep convection exhibits vigorous subseasonal fluctuations, generally referred to as

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Song Yang and Eric A. Smith

perspectives on this topic]. The main scientific objective of this study is to improve the current understanding of the earth’s diurnal rainfall variability by analyzing the newest and most reliable global-scale satellite data now being acquired from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission [TRMM; see Simpson et al. (1996) and Kummerow et al. (2000) for overviews of the mission and salient rainfall results, respectively]. We seek to explain how large-scale and local forcing mechanisms at work over both

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Yingying Zhao, Emanuele Di Lorenzo, Daoxun Sun, and Samantha Stevenson

Pacific decadal oscillation (SPDO; Garreaud and Battisti 1999 ; Mo 2000 ; Hsu and Chen 2011 ). These climate modes tend to share a similar pattern to El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ( Zhang et al. 1997 ) on decadal time scales, which indicates that tropical dynamics (e.g., ENSO) play a significant role in the PDV ( Linsley et al. 2000 ). Tropical Pacific decadal variability (TPDV), defined as the dominant mode of low-frequency (time scales > 8 years) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies

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Xingyan Zhou and Riyu Lu

, both favoring a straight track and landfall in South China, the Philippines, and the Malaysian Peninsula. Furthermore, Gao et al. (2018) suggested that SST anomalies in the tropical North Atlantic can also affect the TC landfalls over East Asia: negative SST anomalies in this region favor TC landfalls over Vietnam, China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan. While these studies focused on the tropical impacts on the interannual variability of TC landfall frequency over East Asia, the extratropical

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Ping Liu, Yoshiyuki Kajikawa, Bin Wang, Akio Kitoh, Tetsuzo Yasunari, Tim Li, H. Annamalai, Xiouhua Fu, Kazuyoshi Kikuchi, Ryo Mizuta, Kavirajan Rajendran, Duane E. Waliser, and Daehyun Kim

1. Introduction Tropical intraseasonal variability (TISV) exhibits the following two dominant modes: the boreal winter Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ) and the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs; Yasunari 1979 ; Wang and Rui 1990 ). These two modes have both distinct and similar characteristics. The MJO exhibits eastward propagation at zonal wavenumbers 1–3 and in a 30–60-day period. Zonal wind anomalies are out of phase in the lower and higher

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Dan Fu, Ping Chang, Christina M. Patricola, and R. Saravanan

al. 2014 , 2016 , 2018 ; Vitart et al. 2017 ; Nakano et al. 2015 ). These recent advances build confidence that climate models are more readily applicable than before for understanding TC variability and change, for making seasonal predictions, and even future climate projections of TC activity. Compared to global climate models, regional climate models (RCMs) with a tropical channel configuration offer advantages of being more computationally efficient and more flexible in choice of physics

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